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Sparrowhawk movement, calling, and presence of dead conspecifics differentially impact blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus) vocal and behavioral mobbing responses

predator's state (moving, vocalizing, or the presence of a dead conspecific) impacted different types of blue tit anti-predator behavior and vocalizations. These results indicate that different components of ... indicate a lesser threat because the predator has caught something and unlikely to hunt again immediately; the presence of a dead conspecific could also increase investigatory behavior (i.e., scanning) as

A time-lagged effect of conspecific density on habitat selection by snowshoe hare

Ideal free distribution theory predicts that increased conspecific density redistributes individuals to low-density, suboptimal habitat. However, possible lags in response to population density ... to a large variety of stimuli, such as vegetation structure and composition, predation risk [ 1 ], weather [ 2 ], and conspecific population density [ 3 ]. The effect of conspecific population

Fear no colors? Observer clothing color influences lizard escape behavior

Animals often view humans as predators, leading to alterations in their behavior. Even nuanced aspects of human activity like clothing color affect animal behavior, but we lack an understanding of

Experiencing physical warmth affects implicit attitudes and altruistic behavior toward outgroup in females

aimed to investigate the effect of physical warmth on implicit attitudes and behavior toward outgroup members in a Japanese–Chinese intergroup context. After touching either a warm or cold cup for 3 min ... : warm vs. cold)  ×  2 (gender: male vs. female) ANCOVA, as described above. Additionally, since the presence of other people inhibits helping behavior [ 14 ], we also controlled the group size (i.e

Mechanisms of aggregation in an ant-tended treehopper: Attraction to mutualists is balanced by conspecific competition

conspecifics (e.g., to take advantage of density-dependent ant attraction) remains untested. We show that, as expected, the probability of treehopper oviposition increases with ant-presence and relative ant ... generated by ant-dependent oviposition behavior of individuals attracted to ants alone, with conspecific aggregation emerging as a by-product of selection for ant-tending [ 28,32 ]. Ant-dependent

Estradiol modulates neural response to conspecific and heterospecific song in female house sparrows: An in vivo positron emission tomography study

metabolism, a measure of neuronal activity, in females with empty implants, estradiol implants, and empty implants ~1 month after estradiol implant removal. Females were exposed to conspecific or ... not differ between females with empty implants exposed to conspecific vs. heterospecific song, but neuronal activity was significantly reduced in females with estradiol implants exposed to

Olfactory signaling of aggressive intent in male-male contests of cave crickets (Troglophilus neglectus; Orthoptera: Rhaphidophoridae)

glands in male cave crickets Troglophilus neglectus (Orthoptera, Rhaphidophoridae) to reflect the state of the signaler’s aggression. We correlate the intensity of behaviorally expressed aggression of the ... emitted odor was recently linked to male agonistic behavior [43]. However, no details of male contests, their relation to the occurrence of gland tissue protrusion or the correlation of such signaling by

Male group size, female distribution and changes in sexual segregation by Roosevelt elk

segregation. Our findings were consistent with male group size associating with small-scale segregation and a change in female distribution associating with large-scale segregation. Females appeared to avoid ... segregation: foraging behavior and females avoiding larger groups of males . American Midland Naturalist. 2004 ; 152 : 386 ± 99 . 29. Bliss LM , Weckerly FW . Habitat use by male and female Roosevelt elk in

Spot on for liars! How public scrutiny influences ethical behavior

scrutiny to promote ethical behavior. While public scrutiny eventually increases honesty, this effect is contingent on people’s mindsets and expectations. ... behavior is surprisingly scant. As a step toward closing this gap, we examine the impact of public scrutiny on lying, which is considered unethical in most cultures [ 1 ]. Ethical behavior is contingent

Low level of polyandry constrains phenotypic plasticity of male body size in mites

similar in life history, ecological niche requirements, mating behavior, polygyny and female body size plasticity but strikingly differ in the level of both polyandry and phenotypic plasticity of male body ... acrylic cage, which had been previously loaded with surplus spider mite eggs using a fine marten's hair brush, together with a conspecific small or standard-sized virgin male. The mating behavior of the

Quantifying male and female pheromone-based mate choice in Caenorhabditis nematodes using a novel microfluidic technique

that virgin C. remanei and C. elegans males have a strong preference for virgin females over mated ones. Moreover, our results suggest that the strength of attraction is an additive effect of male ... C. remanei and C. elegans males were assayed for their ability to discriminate between conspecific virgin and mated females. Male choice was measured approximately every 30 minutes for 3 hours. Across

Sex-specific influences of mtDNA mitotype and diet on mitochondrial functions and physiological traits in Drosophila melanogaster

Here we determine the sex-specific influence of mtDNA type (mitotype) and diet on mitochondrial functions and physiology in two Drosophila melanogaster lines. In many species, males and females ... , and the egg. Males produce numerous, small, and highly mobile sperm that are disposable. In contrast, females produce a small number of large and immobile eggs [ 2 ]. While the male shares autosomal

Multiple Immune-Inflammatory and Oxidative and Nitrosative Stress Pathways Explain the Frequent Presence of Depression in Multiple Sclerosis

microglia is now considered to lie at the core of MS-specific pathology. The presence of activated microglia is common to both illnesses although the pattern of such action throughout the brain appears to be ... development of MDD [ 55, 56 ]. Interestingly, lipid peroxidation levels correlate with symptom severity in females but not in males for reasons which remain to be delineated [ 55, 56 ]. The presence of

Synthetic Copulin Does Not Affect Men’s Sexual Behavior

Chemical communication plays an important role in the social interactions and mating behavior of diverse animal taxa; yet its role in humans remains equivocal. Using a randomized, placebo-controlled ... underestimated the role of olfaction in human behavior. Humans use olfaction to avoid spoiled foods and to detect the presence of harmful environmental pollutants (Engen 1983) . Odors also affect mood and

Triadic male-infant-male interaction serves in bond maintenance in male Assamese macaques

have received less attention. We investigated the possible function of male-infant-male interactions (MIMIs) in male-male social bonding processes by analysing about 9000h of focal animal observations ... affiliative relationships in primates is puzzling since male relationships are generally competitive, aggressive, and intolerant pertaining to their competition over a non-sharable resource, fertile females [34

Early-Life Social Isolation Influences Mouse Ultrasonic Vocalizations during Male-Male Social Encounters

, or an individually housed and a socially housed male (“mixed” pairs). Vocal behavior (USVs) and non-vocal behaviors were recorded from these 15-minute social interactions. Pairs of mice consisting of ... copy their cagemate in preference to broadcast adult song, demonstrating the significance of social partners for some species [ 22 ]. Non-singing females can also play a role in shaping male song

Departure time influences foraging associations in little penguins

associating pair. Same sex pair vs different sex pairs were also assessed using a three level factor within the model (male-male, female-female and male-female), the results of this model were consistent with ... [ 48 ]. Presence of conspecifics was recorded in order to determine maximum group size. Maximum group size was defined as the maximum number of conspecifics in a single frame during the entire period at

Exploring the effects of a non-interactive talking avatar on social presence, credibility, trust, and patronage intention in an e-commerce website

website trust and patronage intention among male participants; but had negative effects on perceptions of information credibility and website patronage intention among females. Analysis based on ... female online shoppers benefit more from the induced social presence by avatars than their male counterparts [ 21 ]. These aforementioned findings provide a reasonable cause for this paper to examine the

High status males invest more than high status females in lower status same-sex collaborators

that higher status males who interact more in hierarchical groups than females, will invest more than high status females in valued same-sex peers after successful cooperation. Across three studies, 187 ... after cooperation than high-ranked females. There is evidence from a variety of sources that status has an effect on cooperative behavior. In non-human primates, when individuals cannot obtain a reward

Effects of two pre-workout supplements on concentric and eccentric force production during lower body resistance exercise in males and females: a counterbalanced, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

adults (12 F, 9 M) completed three conditions in random order: caffeinated supplement, non-caffeinated supplement and placebo. Subjects were not informed of the presence of a placebo condition. Thirty ... to 0.4 relative to placebo), but not females. (Continued on next page) - (Continued from previous page) Conclusions: As compared to placebo, caffeinated and non-caffeinated multi-ingredient pre