Veterinary Research

https://veterinaryresearch.biomedcentral.com

List of Papers (Total 848)

Longitudinal field studies reveal early infection and persistence of influenza A virus in piglets despite the presence of maternally derived antibodies

A longitudinal study was performed in three Danish farrow to grower (30 kilos) herds over a 4-month period to investigate the dynamics and clinical impacts of influenza A virus (IAV) infections. In each herd, four batches consisting of four sows each with five ear-tagged piglets were included. Nasal swabs and/or blood were sampled from the sows and/or the piglets prior to...

Neighbourhood contacts and trade movements drive the regional spread of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV)

To explore the regional spread of endemic pathogens, investigations are required both at within and between population levels. The bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is such a pathogen, spreading among cattle herds mainly due to trade movements and neighbourhood contacts, and causing an endemic disease with economic consequences. To assess the contribution of both transmission...

Newcastle disease virus selectively infects dividing cells and promotes viral proliferation

Newcastle disease virus (NDV) can select cells to infect, but the mechanism of its cell selectivity has not been comprehensively investigated. Here, we use HeLa cells to establish that NDV can selectively infect cells at the single-cell level. We labeled proliferating cells with 5′-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) and examined the colocalization of BrdU with NDV in cells to clarify...

PCV2 replication promoted by oxidative stress is dependent on the regulation of autophagy on apoptosis

Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is an economically important swine pathogen but some extra trigger factors are required for the development of PCV2-associated diseases. By evaluating cap protein expression, viral DNA copies and the number of infected cells, the present study further confirmed that oxidative stress can promote PCV2 replication. The results showed that oxidative...

In-feed resin acids reduce matrix metalloproteinase activity in the ileal mucosa of healthy broilers without inducing major effects on the gut microbiota

The chicken gut is constantly exposed to harmful molecules and microorganisms which endanger the integrity of the intestinal wall. Strengthening intestinal mucosal integrity is a key target for feed additives that aim to promote intestinal health in broilers. Recently, dietary inclusion of resin-based products has been shown to increase broiler performance. However, the mode of...

Low levels of classical BSE infectivity in rendered fat tissue

BSE infectivity in mesentery fat is most likely associated with embedded nervous tissue. To prove this mesentery containing celiac ganglion was taken from oral BSE infected cattle in different stages of the disease and from one control animal. Fat was rendered according to standard tallow production methods and the prion infectivity therein analysed in transgenic mouse bioassay...

Gut colonization by a novel Clostridium species is associated with the onset of epizootic rabbit enteropathy

Epizootic rabbit enteropathy (ERE) represents one of the most devastating diseases affecting rabbit farms. Previous studies showing transmissibility of disease symptoms through oral inoculation of intestinal contents from sick animals suggested a bacterial infectious origin for ERE. However, no etiological agent has been identified yet. On the other hand, ERE is associated with...

Regulators of Salmonella -host interaction identified by peripheral blood transcriptome profiling: roles of TGFB1 and TRP53 in intracellular Salmonella replication in pigs

Peripheral blood transcriptome is an important intermediate data source for investigating the mechanism of Salmonella invasion, proliferation, and transmission. We challenged 4-week old piglets with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium LT2 and investigated the peripheral blood gene expression profile before treatment (d0) and at 2 and 7 days post-inoculation (dpi) using deep...

Global discovery of small RNAs in the fish pathogen Edwardsiella piscicida : key regulator of adversity and pathogenicity

Recently, bacterial small RNA (sRNA) has been shown to be involved as a key regulator in stress responses. sRNAs of Edwardsiella piscicida, an important aquatic pathogen, are not well characterized to date. In this study, using RNA-seq technology, we globally found and identified sRNA candidates expressed from E. piscicida grown in normal LB medium, acid pressure, iron deficiency...

First demonstration of the circulation of a pneumovirus in French pigs by detection of anti-swine orthopneumovirus nucleoprotein antibodies

The presence of pneumoviruses in pigs is poorly documented. In this study, we used the published sequence of the nucleoprotein (N) of the recently identified Swine Orthopneumovirus (SOV) to express and purify SOV N as a recombinant protein in Escherichia coli. This protein was purified as nanorings and used to set up an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, which was used to analyse...

Oral vaccination with Trichinella spiralis DNase II DNA vaccine delivered by attenuated Salmonella induces a protective immunity in BALB/c mice

Trichinellosis is one of the most serious foodborne parasitic zoonosis with worldwide distribution, and it is necessary to develop a vaccine to interrupt transmission from animals to humans. Trichinella spiralis adult-specific DNase II-1 (TsDNase II) were identified by immunoproteomics in surface or excretory/secretory proteins of adult worms (AW) and intestinal infective larvae...

Characterization of paucibacillary ileal lesions in sheep with subclinical active infection by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis

Paratuberculosis (PTB) or Johne’s disease is a contagious enteritis of ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). Ovine PTB is less understood than bovine PTB, especially concerning paucibacillary infection and its evolution into clinical disease. We combined shotgun proteomics, histopathology and immunohistochemistry for the characterization of ileal...

The adjuvant G3 promotes a Th1 polarizing innate immune response in equine PBMC

The immunomodulatory effect of a new particulate adjuvant, G3, alone or in combination with agonists to TLR2/1 or TLR5 was evaluated in cultures of equine PBMC. Exposure to the G3 adjuvant up-regulated genes encoding IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12p40 and IL-23p19 in the majority of the horses tested, indicating that the G3 adjuvant induced a pro-inflammatory and Th1 dominated...

Bottlenecks in the transmission of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV1) to naïve pigs and the quasi-species variation of the virus during infection in vaccinated pigs

This paper describes the results of two experiments regarding porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV1): the first one studied the existence of bottlenecks in an experimental one-to-one model of transmission in pigs; while the second analysed the differences between viral quasi-species in vaccinated pigs that developed shorter or longer viraemias after natural...

Endogenous transplacental transmission of Neospora caninum during successive pregnancies across three generations of naturally infected sheep

Endogenous transplacental transmission, which occurs during pregnancy as the result of reactivation of a latent infection in the dam, is the main mechanism of propagation of Neospora caninum within cattle herds. However, the importance of this propagation mechanism has not yet been evaluated in relation to ovine neosporosis. In this study, involving three generations of ewes...

Safety and immunogenicity of plant-produced African horse sickness virus-like particles in horses

African horse sickness (AHS) is caused by multiple serotypes of the dsRNA AHSV and is a major scourge of domestic equids in Africa. While there are well established commercial live attenuated vaccines produced in South Africa, risks associated with these have encouraged attempts to develop new and safer recombinant vaccines. Previously, we reported on the immunogenicity of a...

Visualisation and characterisation of mononuclear phagocytes in the chicken respiratory tract using CSF1R -transgenic chickens

The respiratory tract is a key organ for many avian pathogens as well as a major route for vaccination in the poultry industry. To improve immune responses after vaccination of chickens through increased uptake of vaccines and targeting to antigen presenting cells, a better understanding of the avian respiratory immune system is required. Transgenic MacReporter birds were used...

Newcastle disease virus V protein inhibits apoptosis in DF-1 cells by downregulating TXNL1

Many viral proteins are related to suppressing apoptosis in target cells and are hence beneficial to viral replication. The V protein of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is one such protein that plays an important role in inhibiting apoptosis in a species-specific manner. However, to date, there have been no reports clarifying the antiapoptotic mechanisms of the V protein. The...

Multi-organ spreading of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serovar 7 in weaned pigs during the first week after experimental infection

Actinobacillus (A.) pleuropneumoniae is normally considered strictly adapted to the respiratory tract of swine. Despite this, scattered case reports of arthritis, osteomyelitis, hepatitis, meningitis or nephritis exist, in which A. pleuropneumoniae remained the only detectable pathogen. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate whether spreading to other organs than the...

Transmissible gastroenteritis virus infection decreases arginine uptake by downregulating CAT-1 expression

Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) is a coronavirus that causes severe diarrhea in suckling piglets. TGEV primarily targets and infects porcine intestinal epithelial cells, which play an important role in nutrient absorption. However, the effects of TGEV infection on nutrient absorption in swine have not yet been investigated. In this study, we evaluated the impact of...

Pathobiology of Avian avulavirus 1 : special focus on waterfowl

Avian avulaviruses serotype 1 (abbreviated as APMV-1 for the historical name avian paramyxovirus 1) are capable of infecting a wide spectrum of avian species with variable clinical symptoms and outcomes. Ease of transmission has allowed the virus to spread worldwide with varying degrees of virulence depending upon the virus strain and host species. The emergence of new virulent...

The Riemerella anatipestifer M949_RS01035 gene is involved in bacterial lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis

In this study, the Riemerella anatipestifer mutant strain RA1062 was obtained by screening a random Tn4351 transposon mutant library. The mutant strain was unreactive with the anti-CH3 lipopolysaccharide monoclonal antibody, as demonstrated with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and its M949_RS01035 gene was inactivated. When cultured in trypticase soy broth, the late stage...

Porcine sapovirus Cowden strain enters LLC-PK cells via clathrin- and cholesterol-dependent endocytosis with the requirement of dynamin II

Caliciviruses in the genus Sapovirus are a significant cause of viral gastroenteritis in humans and animals. However, the mechanism of their entry into cells is not well characterized. Here, we determined the entry mechanism of porcine sapovirus (PSaV) strain Cowden into permissive LLC-PK cells. The inhibition of clathrin-mediated endocytosis using chlorpromazine, siRNAs, and a...