Journal of Biomedical Science

http://www.jbiomedsci.com/

List of Papers (Total 897)

Imaging extracellular vesicles: current and emerging methods

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are lipid bilayer-enclosed nanoparticles released by cells. They range from 30 nm to several micrometers in diameter, and ferry biological cargos such as proteins, lipids, RNAs and DNAs for local and distant intercellular communications. EVs have since been found to play a role in development, as well as in diseases including cancers. To elucidate the...

Current and novel polymeric biomaterials for neural tissue engineering

The nervous system is a crucial component of the body and damages to this system, either by of injury or disease, can result in serious or potentially lethal consequences. Restoring the damaged nervous system is a great challenge due to the complex physiology system and limited regenerative capacity. Polymers, either synthetic or natural in origin, have been extensively evaluated...

The effects of highly active antiretroviral therapy on the serum levels of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines in HIV infected subjects

Cytokines play an important role in controlling the homeostasis of the immune system and infection with Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV) leads to deregulated production of both pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. This study was designed to determine the effects of HIV and Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) on the levels of pro-and anti-inflammatory cytokines in HIV...

A new approach to study the sex differences in adipose tissue

Obesity is one of the most invaliding and preventable diseases in the United States. Growing evidence suggests that there are sex differences in obesity in human and experimental animals. However, the specific mechanisms of this disease are unknown. Consequently, there is any particular treatment according to the sex/gender at this time. During the last decade, we observe a rise...

Mitophagy, a potential therapeutic target for stroke

Mitochondria autophagy, termed as mitophagy, is a mechanism of specific autophagic elimination of mitochondria. Mitophagy controls the quality and the number of mitochondria, eliminating dysfunctional or excessive mitochondria that can generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cause cell death. Mitochondria are centrally implicated in neuron and tissue injury after stroke, due...

Jaundice revisited: recent advances in the diagnosis and treatment of inherited cholestatic liver diseases

Jaundice is a common symptom of inherited or acquired liver diseases or a manifestation of diseases involving red blood cell metabolism. Recent progress has elucidated the molecular mechanisms of bile metabolism, hepatocellular transport, bile ductular development, intestinal bile salt reabsorption, and the regulation of bile acids homeostasis. The major genetic diseases causing...

Differential genome-wide profiling of alternative polyadenylation sites in nasopharyngeal carcinoma by high-throughput sequencing

Alternative polyadenylation (APA) is a widespread phenomenon in the posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression that generates mRNAs with alternative 3′-untranslated regions (3’UTRs). APA contributes to the pathogenesis of various diseases, including cancer. However, the potential role of APA in the development of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) remains largely unknown. A...

Visceral pain: gut microbiota, a new hope?

Visceral pain is a complex and heterogeneous disorder, which can range from the mild discomfort of indigestion to the agonizing pain of renal colic. Regulation of visceral pain involves the spinal cord as well as higher order brain structures. Recent findings have linked the microbiota to gastrointestinal disorders characterized by abdominal pain suggesting the ability of...

Genetic diagnosis of neurofibromatosis type 1: targeted next- generation sequencing with Multiple Ligation-Dependent Probe Amplification analysis

Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a dominantly inherited tumor predisposition syndrome that targets the peripheral nervous system. It is caused by mutations of the NF1 gene which serve as a negative regulator of the cellular Ras/MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinases) signaling pathway. Owing to the complexity in some parts of clinical diagnoses and the need for better...

The TRAX, DISC1, and GSK3 complex in mental disorders and therapeutic interventions

Psychiatric disorders (such as bipolar disorder, depression, and schizophrenia) affect the lives of millions of individuals worldwide. Despite the tremendous efforts devoted to various types of psychiatric studies and rapidly accumulating genetic information, the molecular mechanisms underlying psychiatric disorder development remain elusive. Among the genes that have been...

Genetic variant in CXCL12 gene raises susceptibility to HPV infection and squamous intraepithelial lesions development: a case-control study

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted virus in women worldwide. The persistence of the virus may cause warts that are considered benign lesions and low or high grade intraepithelial lesions (LSIL/HSIL). Immunological system plays an important role in the resolution of infections. In this context, we highlight the chemokines, which are important...

The impacts of H. pylori virulence factors on the development of gastroduodenal diseases

Although most H. pylori infectors are asymptomatic, some may develop serious disease, such as gastric adenocarcinoma, gastric high-grade B cell lymphoma and peptic ulcer disease. Epidemiological and basic studies have provided evidence that infection with H. pylori carrying specific virulence factors can lead to more severe outcome. The virulence factors that are associated with...

H. pylori infection and extra-gastroduodenal diseases

Helicobacter pylori infection is the principal cause of peptic ulcer disease, gastric adenocarcinoma and gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. Recent studies have shown that it may interfere with many biological processes and determine or influence the occurrence of many diseases outside the stomach. Currently, the role of H. pylori in idiopathic thrombocytopenic...

Identification of target genes in cardiomyopathy with fibrosis and cardiac remodeling

Identify genes probably associated with chronic heart failure and predict potential target genes for dilated cardiomyopathy using bioinformatics analyses. Gene expression profiles (series number GSE3585 and GSE42955) of cardiomyopathy patients and healthy controls were downloaded from the Expression Omnibus Gene (GEO) database. Differential expression of genes (DEGS) between the...

Cancer immunotherapies targeting the PD-1 signaling pathway

Immunotherapy has recently emerged as the fourth pillar of cancer treatment, joining surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy. While early immunotherapies focused on accelerating T-cell activity, current immune-checkpoint inhibitors take the brakes off the anti-tumor immune responses. Successful clinical trials with PD-1 monoclonal antibodies and other immune-checkpoint inhibitors...

Regulatory T cells induced by B cells: a novel subpopulation of regulatory T cells

Regulatory T cells play a crucial role in the homeostasis of the immune response. In addition to CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells, several subsets of Foxp3- regulatory T cells, such as T helper 3 (Th3) cells and type 1 regulatory T (Tr1) cells, have been described in mice and human. Accumulating evidence shows that naïve B cells contribute to tolerance and are able to promote...

Zinc transporters and insulin resistance: therapeutic implications for type 2 diabetes and metabolic disease

Zinc is a metal ion that is essential for growth and development, immunity, and metabolism, and therefore vital for life. Recent studies have highlighted zinc’s dynamic role as an insulin mimetic and a cellular second messenger that controls many processes associated with insulin signaling and other downstream pathways that are amendable to glycemic control. Mechanisms that...

Atrial ERK1/2 activation in the embryo leads to incomplete Septal closure: a novel mouse model of atrial Septal defect

MEK1 mutation and activated MAPK signaling has been found in patients with RASopathies and abnormal cardiac development. Previous studies have suggested that regulation of fetal MAPK signaling is essential for normal cardiac development. We investigated the effect of active MEK1 overexpression on fetal atrial septal development. An inducible double transgenic (DTg) mouse model...

Regulatory T cells induced by B cells: a novel subpopulation of regulatory T cells

Regulatory T cells play a crucial role in the homeostasis of the immune response. In addition to CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells, several subsets of Foxp3- regulatory T cells, such as T helper 3 (Th3) cells and type 1 regulatory T (Tr1) cells, have been described in mice and human. Accumulating evidence shows that naïve B cells contribute to tolerance and are able to promote...

Cancer immunotherapies targeting the PD-1 signaling pathway

Immunotherapy has recently emerged as the fourth pillar of cancer treatment, joining surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy. While early immunotherapies focused on accelerating T-cell activity, current immune-checkpoint inhibitors take the brakes off the anti-tumor immune responses. Successful clinical trials with PD-1 monoclonal antibodies and other immune-checkpoint inhibitors...

Zinc transporters and insulin resistance: therapeutic implications for type 2 diabetes and metabolic disease

Zinc is a metal ion that is essential for growth and development, immunity, and metabolism, and therefore vital for life. Recent studies have highlighted zinc’s dynamic role as an insulin mimetic and a cellular second messenger that controls many processes associated with insulin signaling and other downstream pathways that are amendable to glycemic control. Mechanisms that...