Lipids in Health and Disease

http://www.lipidworld.com/

List of Papers (Total 1,694)

Cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans contribute to intracellular lipid accumulation in adipocytes

Background Transport of fatty acids within the cytosol of adipocytes and their subsequent assimilation into lipid droplets has been thoroughly investigated; however, the mechanism by which fatty acids are transported across the plasma membrane from the extracellular environment remains unclear. Since triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins represent an abundant source of fatty acids...

Association of SNP3 polymorphism in the apolipoprotein A-V gene with plasma triglyceride level in Tunisian type 2 diabetes

Background Apolipoprotein A-V (Apo A-V) gene has recently been identified as a new apolipoprotein involved in triglyceride metabolism. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP3) located in the gene promoter (-1131) was associated with triglyceride variation in healthy subjects. In type 2 diabetes the triglyceride level increased compared to healthy subjects. Hypertriglyceridemia is...

Correlates of serum lipoprotein (A) in children and adolescents in the United States. The third National Health Nutrition and Examination Survey (NHANES-III)

Objective To determine the correlates of serum lipoprotein (a) (Lp(a)) in children and adolescents in the United States. Methods Cross-sectional study using representative data from a US national sample for persons aged 4–19 years participating in The Third National Health Nutrition and Examination Survey (NHANES-III). Results We observed ethnicity-related differences in levels...

Effects of thyroxine and 1-methyl, 2-mercaptoimidazol on phosphoinositides synthesis in rat liver

Background Phosphoinositides mediate one of the intracellular signal transduction pathways and produce a class of second messengers that are involved in the action of hormones and neurotransmitters on target cells. Thyroid hormones are well known regulators of lipid metabolism and modulators of signal transduction in cells. However, little is known about phosphoinositides cycle...

Unusual metabolic characteristics in skeletal muscles of transgenic rabbits for human lipoprotein lipase

Background The lipoprotein lipase (LPL) hydrolyses circulating triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins. Thereby, LPL acts as a metabolic gate-keeper for fatty acids partitioning between adipose tissue for storage and skeletal muscle primarily for energy use. Transgenic mice that markedly over-express LPL exclusively in muscle, show increases not only in LPL activity, but also in...

The apolipoprotein E polymorphism and the cholesterol-raising effect of coffee

Background The response of serum cholesterol to diet may be affected by the apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε2/ε3/ε4 polymorphism, which also is a significant predictor of variation in the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) and CHD death. Here, we test the hypothesis that the APOE polymorphism may modulate the cholesterol-raising effect of coffee. Objective We determined the effect of...

Omega-3 fatty acids and major depression: A primer for the mental health professional

Omega-3 fatty acids play a critical role in the development and function of the central nervous system. Emerging research is establishing an association between omega-3 fatty acids (alpha-linolenic, eicosapentaenoic, docosahexaenoic) and major depressive disorder. Evidence from epidemiological, laboratory and clinical studies suggest that dietary lipids and other associated...

Dietary effect of pomegranate seed oil rich in 9cis, 11trans, 13cis conjugated linolenic acid on lipid metabolism in obese, hyperlipidemic OLETF Rats

Conjugated fatty acid, the general term of positional and geometric isomers of polyunsaturated fatty acids with conjugated double bonds, has attracted considerable attention because of its potentially beneficial biological effects. In the present study, dietary effect of pomegranate seed oil rich in punicic acid (9cis, 11trans, 13cis-conjugated linolenic acid; 9c, 11t, 13c-CLNA...

Are the effects of nicotinic acid on insulin resistance precipitated by abnormal phosphorous metabolism?

Nicotinic acid is a unique cholesterol modifying agent that exerts favorable effects on all cholesterol parameters. It holds promise as one of the main pharmacological agents to treat mixed dyslipidemia in metabolic syndrome and diabetic patients. The use of nicotinic acid has always been haunted with concerns that it might worsen insulin resistance and complicate diabetes...

The pivotal role of cholesterol absorption inhibitors in the management of dyslipidemia

Elevated low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol is associated with a significantly increased risk of coronary heart disease. Ezetimibe is the first member of a new class of selective cholesterol absorption inhibitors. It impairs the intestinal reabsorption of both dietary and hepatically excreted biliary cholesterol. Ezetimibe is an effective and safe agent for lowering LDL-C...

Apolipoprotein M

Apolipoprotein M (apoM) is a 26-kDa protein that is mainly associated with high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in human plasma, with a small proportion present in triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TGRLP) and low-density lipoproteins (LDL). Human apoM gene is located in p21.31 on chromosome 6 (chromosome 17, in mouse). Human apoM cDNA (734 base pairs) encodes 188-amino acid residue-long...

Polyphosphoinositides suppress the adhesion of Haemophilus influenzae to pharyngeal cells

Background One of the primary causes of otitis media (OM), an inflammation of the middle ear, is the bacterium Haemophilus influenzae (HI). OM often occurs to young children, and is mostly treated with antibiotics. Due to concerns over bacterial resistance toward antibiotics, reliable prophylactic treatments such as administrating anti-adhesion agents are now viewed as viable...

Increased contractile responses to 5-hydroxytryptamine and Angiotensin II in high fat diet fed rat thoracic aorta

Background Feeding normal rats with high dietary levels of saturated fat leads to pathological conditions, which are quite similar to syndrome X in humans. These conditions such as hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, obesity, and hyperglycemia might induce hypertension through various mechanisms. Metabolic syndrome and the resulting NIDDM represent a major clinical...

Low fasting low high-density lipoprotein and postprandial lipemia

Background Low levels of high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and disturbed postprandial lipemia are associated with coronary heart disease. In the present study, we evaluated the variation of triglyceride (TG) postprandially in respect to serum HDL cholesterol levels. Results Fifty two Greek men were divided into 2 main groups: a) the low HDL group (HDL < 40 mg/dl), and b...

Effects on blood glucose, insulin, lipid and proatherosclerotic parameters in stable type 2 diabetic subjects during an oral fat challenge

Background Restriction of fat intake has been effective in improving insulin sensitivity in obese and type 2 diabetic subjects, but what effects the recommended diet (less than 30% of total calories from fat) have not been elucidated in subjects with type 2 diabetes. The purpose of this study was to test the effects of oral fat challenge, composing 30% calories of a meal, on...

Effect of Nandrolone Decanoate on Serum Lipoprotein (a) and its isoforms in hemodialysis patients

Malnutrition, anemia and increased atherosclerosis are the main causes of mortality in hemodialysis patients. Therapies designed to improve the disorders might therefore be expected to improve outcome. The effects of Nandrolone Decanoate (ND), in 64 stable hemodialysis patients, were studied with respect to the following parameters: nutritional status, hematological indexes...

Increased fluidity and oxidation of malarial lipoproteins: relation with severity and induction of endothelial expression of adhesion molecules

Introduction Oxidative stress has been demonstrated in malaria. The potential oxidative modification of lipoproteins derived from malaria patients was studied. These oxidized lipids may have role in pathogenesis of malaria. Method The plasma lipid profile and existence of oxidized forms of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL) and high density...

Effect of long-term aluminum feeding on lipid/phospholipid profiles of rat brain myelin

Effect of long-term (90–100 days) exposure of rats to soluble salt of aluminum (AlCl3) on myelin lipid profile was examined. The long-term exposure to AlCl3 resulted in a 60 % decrease in the total phospholipid (TPL) content while the cholesterol (CHL) content increased by 55 %. Consequently the TPL / CHL molar ratio decreased significantly by 62 %. The phospholipid composition...

The effects of antioxidant vitamin supplementation on resistance exercise induced lipid peroxidation in trained and untrained participants

Background The theoretical benefits of using antioxidant vitamin supplements to quench oxygen free radicals appear large. High intensity aerobic-type exercise produces oxygen free radicals that can cause damage to lipid membranes (lipid peroxidation) that may lead to many problems such as the inactivation of cell membrane enzymes, the progression of degenerative diseases...

High levels of fat and (n-6) fatty acids in cancellous bone in osteoarthritis

Background Osteoarthritis (OA) is strongly linked with obesity and patients with osteoporosis (OP) have a low body mass index. Anecdotal evidence, clinical and laboratory, suggests that OA bone contains more fat. However, conversion of osteoblasts to adipocytes is reported in OP and this would suggest that the more porous OP cancellous bone would have a high fat content...

Cardiovascular disease risk factors among children of different socioeconomic status in Istanbul, Turkey: Directions for public health and nutrition policy

Objectives The aim of the current study was to examine the influence of socioeconomic status (SES) on physiological (lipid profile, obesity indices) and behavioral (dietary habits, physical activity) cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors among primary schoolchildren in Istanbul. Design Cross sectional study. Setting One private school and two public schools from different SES...

APOAV (T-1131>C) variant has no effect on mother's height in a large population study

The important role of APOAV gene T-1131>C variant in determination of plasma triglyceride levels has been proved on many population studies. Recently, associations between C-1131 allele and higher mother's height as well as with longer fetal birth length were suggested. In 1,305 females, aged between 28 and 67 years and having at least one child, we have analyzed a putative...

Assessing compliance of cardiologists with the national cholesterol education program (NCEP) III guidelines in an ambulatory care setting

Introduction The NCEP III -ATP guidelines provide clear clinical directives for lipid management especially statins therapy in appropriate patient groups. Compliance of primary care physicians with these guidelines especially in ambulatory care settings has been shown to be poor. The compliance of cardiologist to these guidelines is less documented. Methods A retrospective chart...

Human apoB contributes to increased serum total apo(a) level in LPA transgenic mice

Background The Lp(a) lipoprotein (Lp(a)) consists of the polymorphic glycoprotein apolipoprotein(a) (apo(a)), which is attached by a disulfide bond to apolipoprotein B (apoB). Apo(a), which has high homology with plasminogen, is present only in primates and hedgehogs. However, transgenic mice and rabbits with high serum apo(a) levels exist. Liver is the main site for apo(a...

Positive pleiotropic effects of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor on vitiligo

Background HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) are commonly used in medicine to control blood lipid disorder. Large clinical trials have demonstrated that statins greatly reduces cardiovascular-related morbidity and mortality in patients with and without coronary artery disease. Also, the use of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors has been reported to have immunosuppressive effects...