Biological Cybernetics

http://link.springer.com/journal/422

List of Papers (Total 143)

Control theory in biology and medicine

From September–December 2017, the Mathematical Biosciences Institute at Ohio State University hosted a series of workshops on control theory in biology and medicine, including workshops on control and modulation of neuronal and motor systems, control of cellular and molecular systems, control of disease / personalized medicine across heterogeneous populations, and sensorimotor...

Human-like hopping in machines

Template models of legged locomotion are powerful tools for gait analysis, but can also inspire robot design and control. In this paper, a spring-loaded inverted pendulum (SLIP) model is employed to control vertical hopping of a 2-segmented legged robot. Feed-forward and bio-inspired virtual model control using the SLIP model are compared. In the latter approach, the feedback...

Weak-noise-induced transitions with inhibition and modulation of neural oscillations

We analyze the effect of weak-noise-induced transitions on the dynamics of the FitzHugh–Nagumo neuron model in a bistable state consisting of a stable fixed point and a stable unforced limit cycle. Bifurcation and slow-fast analysis give conditions on the parameter space for the establishment of this bi-stability. In the parametric zone of bi-stability, weak-noise amplitudes may...

Combined mechanisms of neural firing rate homeostasis

Spikes in the membrane potential of neurons comprise the currency of information processing in the brain. The ability of neurons to convert any information present across their multiple inputs into a significant modification to the pattern of their emitted spikes depends on the rate at which they emit spikes. If the mean rate is near the neuron’s maximum, or if the rate is near...

Methods for identification of spike patterns in massively parallel spike trains

Temporally, precise correlations between simultaneously recorded neurons have been interpreted as signatures of cell assemblies, i.e., groups of neurons that form processing units. Evidence for this hypothesis was found on the level of pairwise correlations in simultaneous recordings of few neurons. Increasing the number of simultaneously recorded neurons increases the chances to...

Planning and navigation as active inference

This paper introduces an active inference formulation of planning and navigation. It illustrates how the exploitation–exploration dilemma is dissolved by acting to minimise uncertainty (i.e. expected surprise or free energy). We use simulations of a maze problem to illustrate how agents can solve quite complicated problems using context sensitive prior preferences to form...

Sustained sensorimotor control as intermittent decisions about prediction errors: computational framework and application to ground vehicle steering

A conceptual and computational framework is proposed for modelling of human sensorimotor control and is exemplified for the sensorimotor task of steering a car. The framework emphasises control intermittency and extends on existing models by suggesting that the nervous system implements intermittent control using a combination of (1) motor primitives, (2) prediction of sensory...

Bipedal robotic walking control derived from analysis of human locomotion

This paper proposes the design of a bipedal robotic controller where the function between the sensory input and motor output is treated as a black box derived from human data. In order to achieve this, we investigated the causal relationship between ground contact information from the feet and leg muscle activity n human walking and calculated filter functions which transform...

Ergodicity and parameter estimates in auditory neural circuits

This paper discusses ergodic properties and circular statistical characteristics in neuronal spike trains. Ergodicity means that the average taken over a long time period and over smaller population should equal the average in less time and larger population. The objectives are to show simple examples of design and validation of a neuronal model, where the ergodicity assumption...

Winnerless competition in clustered balanced networks: inhibitory assemblies do the trick

Balanced networks are a frequently employed basic model for neuronal networks in the mammalian neocortex. Large numbers of excitatory and inhibitory neurons are recurrently connected so that the numerous positive and negative inputs that each neuron receives cancel out on average. Neuronal firing is therefore driven by fluctuations in the input and resembles the irregular and...

A multi-joint model of quiet, upright stance accounts for the “uncontrolled manifold” structure of joint variance

The upright body in quiet stance is usually modeled as a single-link inverted pendulum. This agrees with most of the relevant sensory organs being at the far end of the pendulum, i.e., the eyes and the vestibular system in the head. Movement of the body in quiet stance has often been explained in terms of the “ankle strategy,” where most movement is generated by the ankle...

Affective–associative two-process theory: a neurocomputational account of partial reinforcement extinction effects

The partial reinforcement extinction effect (PREE) is an experimentally established phenomenon: behavioural response to a given stimulus is more persistent when previously inconsistently rewarded than when consistently rewarded. This phenomenon is, however, controversial in animal/human learning theory. Contradictory findings exist regarding when the PREE occurs. One body of...

Synapse fits neuron: joint reduction by model inversion

In this paper, we introduce a novel simplification method for dealing with physical systems that can be thought to consist of two subsystems connected in series, such as a neuron and a synapse. The aim of our method is to help find a simple, yet convincing model of the full cascade-connected system, assuming that a satisfactory model of one of the subsystems, e.g., the neuron, is...

Morphology and the gradient of a symmetric potential predict gait transitions of dogs

Gaits and gait transitions play a central role in the movement of animals. Symmetry is thought to govern the structure of the nervous system, and constrain the limb motions of quadrupeds. We quantify the symmetry of dog gaits with respect to combinations of bilateral, fore–aft, and spatio-temporal symmetry groups. We tested the ability of symmetries to model motion capture data...

A spiking neural network model of the midbrain superior colliculus that generates saccadic motor commands

Single-unit recordings suggest that the midbrain superior colliculus (SC) acts as an optimal controller for saccadic gaze shifts. The SC is proposed to be the site within the visuomotor system where the nonlinear spatial-to-temporal transformation is carried out: the population encodes the intended saccade vector by its location in the motor map (spatial), and its trajectory and...

Retrieving challenging vessel connections in retinal images by line co-occurrence statistics

Natural images contain often curvilinear structures, which might be disconnected, or partly occluded. Recovering the missing connection of disconnected structures is an open issue and needs appropriate geometric reasoning. We propose to find line co-occurrence statistics from the centerlines of blood vessels in retinal images and show its remarkable similarity to a well-known...

Simultaneous spatio-temporal matching pursuit decomposition of evoked brain responses in MEG

We present a novel approach to the spatio-temporal decomposition of evoked brain responses in magnetoencephalography (MEG) aiming at a sparse representation of the underlying brain activity in terms of spatio-temporal atoms. Our approach is characterized by three attributes which constitute significant improvements with respect to existing approaches: (1) the spatial and temporal...

Robustness, flexibility, and sensitivity in a multifunctional motor control model

Motor systems must adapt to perturbations and changing conditions both within and outside the body. We refer to the ability of a system to maintain performance despite perturbations as “robustness,” and the ability of a system to deploy alternative strategies that improve fitness as “flexibility.” Different classes of pattern-generating circuits yield dynamics with differential...

Animals and ICE: meaning, origin, and diversity

ICE stands for internally coupled ears. More than half of the terrestrial vertebrates, such as frogs, lizards, and birds, as well as many insects, are equipped with ICE that utilize an air-filled cavity connecting the two eardrums. Its effect is pronounced and twofold. On the basis of a solid experimental and mathematical foundation, it is known that there is a low-frequency...

Beyond in-phase and anti-phase coordination in a model of joint action

In 1985, Haken, Kelso and Bunz proposed a system of coupled nonlinear oscillators as a model of rhythmic movement patterns in human bimanual coordination. Since then, the Haken–Kelso–Bunz (HKB) model has become a modelling paradigm applied extensively in all areas of movement science, including interpersonal motor coordination. However, all previous studies have followed a line...

Entrainment and synchronization in networks of Rayleigh–van der Pol oscillators with diffusive and Haken–Kelso–Bunz couplings

We analyze a network of non-identical Rayleigh–van der Pol (RvdP) oscillators interconnected through either diffusive or nonlinear coupling functions. The work presented here extends existing results on the case of two nonlinearly coupled RvdP oscillators to the problem of considering a network of three or more of them. Specifically, we study synchronization and entrainment in...

A review of human sensory dynamics for application to models of driver steering and speed control

In comparison with the high level of knowledge about vehicle dynamics which exists nowadays, the role of the driver in the driver–vehicle system is still relatively poorly understood. A large variety of driver models exist for various applications; however, few of them take account of the driver’s sensory dynamics, and those that do are limited in their scope and accuracy. A...