Protein & Cell

https://link.springer.com/journal/13238

List of Papers (Total 762)

Study on the chaperone properties of conserved GTPases

As a large family of hydrolases, GTPases are widespread in cells and play the very important biological function of hydrolyzing GTP into GDP and inorganic phosphate through binding with it. GTPases are involved in cell cycle regulation, protein synthesis, and protein transportation. Chaperones can facilitate the folding or refolding of nascent peptides and denatured proteins to...

Structural vaccinology: structure-based design of influenza A virus hemagglutinin subtype-specific subunit vaccines

There is a great need for new vaccine development against influenza A viruses due to the drawbacks of traditional vaccines that are mainly prepared using embryonated eggs. The main component of the current split influenza A virus vaccine is viral hemagglutinin (HA) which induces a strong antibody-mediated immune response. To develop a modern vaccine against influenza A viruses...

Engineering a zinc binding site into the de novo designed protein DS119 with a βαβ structure

Functional proteins designed de novo have potential application in chemical engineering, agriculture and healthcare. Metal binding sites are commonly used to incorporate functions. Based on a de novo designed protein DS119 with a βαβ structure, we have computationally engineered zinc binding sites into it using a home-made searching program. Seven out of the eight designed...

Staged-probability strategy of processing shotgun proteomic data to discover more functionally important proteins

Biologically important proteins related to membrane receptors, signal transduction, regulation, transcription, and translation are usually low in abundance and identified with low probability in mass spectroscopy (MS)-based analyses. Most valuable proteomics information on them were hitherto discarded due to the application of excessively strict data filtering for accurate...

The crosstalk between autophagy and apoptosis: where does this lead?

Recent advances in the understanding of the molecular processes contributing to autophagy have provided insight into the relationship between autophagy and apoptosis. In contrast to the concept of “autophagic cell death,” accumulating evidence suggests that autophagy serves a largely cytoprotective role in physiologically relevant conditions. The cytoprotective function of...

A novel xeno-free and feeder-cell-free system for human pluripotent stem cell culture

While human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) have promising applications in regenerative medicine, most of the hiPSC lines available today are not suitable for clinical applications due to contamination with nonhuman materials, such as sialic acid, and potential pathogens from animal-product-containing cell culture systems. Although several xeno-free cell culture systems...

SySAP: a system-level predictor of deleterious single amino acid polymorphisms

Single amino acid polymorphisms (SAPs), also known as non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs), are responsible for most of human genetic diseases. Discriminate the deleterious SAPs from neutral ones can help identify the disease genes and understand the mechanism of diseases. In this work, a method of deleterious SAP prediction at system level was established...

Transcriptional activators and activation mechanisms

Transcriptional activators are required to turn on the expression of genes in a eukaryotic cell. Activators bound to the enhancer can facilitate either the recruitment of RNA polymerase II to the promoter or its elongation. This article examines a few selected issues in understanding activator functions and activation mechanisms.

Conserved RB functions in development and tumor suppression

The variety of human cancers in which the retinoblastoma protein pRb is inactivated reflects both its broad importance for tumor suppression and its multitude of cellular functions. Accumulating evidence indicates that pRb contributes to a diversity of cellular functions, including cell proliferation, differentiation, cell death, and genome stability. pRb performs these diverse...

Protein-protein complexation in bioluminescence

In this review we summarize the progress made towards understanding the role of protein-protein interactions in the function of various bioluminescence systems of marine organisms, including bacteria, jellyfish and soft corals, with particular focus on methodology used to detect and characterize these interactions. In some bioluminescence systems, protein-protein interactions...

Find and replace: editing human genome in pluripotent stem cells

Genetic manipulation of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) provides a powerful tool for modeling diseases and developing future medicine. Recently a number of independent genome-editing techniques were developed, including plasmid, bacterial artificial chromosome, adeno-associated virus vector, zinc finger nuclease, transcription activator-like effecter nuclease, and helper...

The role of Pbx1 in T cells

Tissue and organ differentiation is tightly controlled to ensure proper development and function of the growing embryo as well as cells such as lymphocytes that differentiate throughout the adult stage. Therefore it is vital that the genes and the protein they encode that are involved in these processes function accurately. Hence, any mutation or error that occurs along the way...

Mechanism and methods to induce pluripotency

Pluripotent stem cells are able to self-renew indefinitely and differentiate into all types of cells in the body. They can thus be an inexhaustible source for future cell transplantation therapy to treat degenerative diseases which currently have no cure. However, non-autologous cells will cause immune rejection. Induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology can convert somatic...

Crystal structure of human Gadd45 reveals an active dimer

The human Gadd45 protein family plays critical roles in DNA repair, negative growth control, genomic stability, cell cycle checkpoints and apoptosis. Here we report the crystal structure of human Gadd45, revealing a unique dimer formed via a bundle of four parallel helices, involving the most conserved residues among the Gadd45 isoforms. Mutational analysis of human Gadd45...

SDF-1/CXCR4 axis modulates bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell apoptosis, migration and cytokine secretion

Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are considered as a promising cell source to treat the acute myocardial infarction. However, over 90% of the stem cells usually die in the first three days of transplantation. Survival potential, migration ability and paracrine capacity have been considered as the most important three factors for cell transplantation in the ischemic...

Expanding neurotransmitters in the hypothalamic neurocircuitry for energy balance regulation

The current epidemic of obesity and its associated metabolic syndromes impose unprecedented challenges to our society. Despite intensive research on obesity pathogenesis, an effective therapeutic strategy to treat and cure obesity is still lacking. Exciting studies in last decades have established the importance of the leptin neural pathway in the hypothalamus in the regulation...

Romance of the three kingdoms: RORgammat allies with HIF1alpha against FoxP3 in regulating T cell metabolism and differentiation

Regulatory T (Treg) cells play an essential role in immune homeostasis by controlling the function of various immune effector cells, including RAR-related orphan receptor gammat+ (RORγt+) T helper 17 (Th17) cells. Foekhead box P3 (FoxP3) is the master regulator of Treg cell function, while RORγt is the key transcription factor for the induction of the interleukin (IL)-17 family...

c-Jun, at the crossroad of the signaling network

c-Jun, the most extensively studied protein of the activator protein-1 (AP-1) complex, is involved in numerous cell activities, such as proliferation, apoptosis, survival, tumorigenesis and tissue morphogenesis. Earlier studies focused on the structure and function have led to the identification of c-Jun as a basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factor that acts as homo- or...

Parkinson disease drug screening based on the interaction between D2 dopamine receptor and beta-arrestin 2 detected by capillary zone electrophoresis

Parkinson’s disease is the second most common neurodegenerative disease in the world. Beta-arrestin-2 has been reported to be an important protein involved in D2 dopamine receptor desensitization, which is essential to Parkinson’s disease. Moreover, the potential value of pharmacological inactivation of G protein-coupled receptor kinase or arrestin in the treatment of patients...

Molecular regulation of telomerase activity in aging

The process of aging is mitigated by the maintenance and repair of chromosome ends (telomeres), resulting in extended lifespan. This review examines the molecular mechanisms underlying the actions and regulation of the enzyme telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), which functions as the primary mechanism of telomere maintenance and regulates cellular life expectancy...

Biotin biosynthesis in Mycobacterium tuberculosis: physiology, biochemistry and molecular intervention

Biotin is an important micronutrient that serves as an essential enzyme cofactor. Bacteria obtain biotin either through de novo synthesis or by active uptake from exogenous sources. Mycobacteria are unusual amongst bacteria in that their primary source of biotin is through de novo synthesis. Here we review the importance of biotin biosynthesis in the lifecycle of Mycobacteria...

Driving efficiency in a high-throughput metabolic stability assay through a generic high-resolution accurate mass method and automated data mining

Improving analytical throughput is the focus of many quantitative workflows being developed for early drug discovery. For drug candidate screening, it is common practice to use ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (U-HPLC) coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. This approach certainly results in short analytical run time; however, in assessing the true...