BMC Neuroscience

https://bmcneurosci.biomedcentral.com

List of Papers (Total 4,702)

Transcranial focused ultrasound stimulation of motor cortical areas in freely-moving awake rats

Low-intensity transcranial focused ultrasound (tFUS) has emerged as a new non-invasive modality of brain stimulation with the potential for high spatial selectivity and penetration depth. Anesthesia is typically applied in animal-based tFUS brain stimulation models; however, the type and depth of anesthesia are known to introduce variability in responsiveness to the stimulation...

Effects of transcranial focused ultrasound on human primary motor cortex using 7T fMRI: a pilot study

Transcranial focused ultrasound (tFUS) is a new non-invasive neuromodulation technique that uses mechanical energy to modulate neuronal excitability with high spatial precision. tFUS has been shown to be capable of modulating EEG brain activity in humans that is spatially restricted, and here, we use 7T MRI to extend these findings. We test the effect of tFUS on 7T BOLD fMRI...

The roles of aromatic residues in the glycine receptor transmembrane domain

Cys-loop receptors play important roles in fast neuronal signal transmission. Functional receptors are pentamers, with each subunit having an extracellular, transmembrane (TM) and intracellular domain. Each TM domain contains 4 α-helices (M1–M4) joined by loops of varying lengths. Many of the amino acid residues that constitute these α-helices are hydrophobic, and there has been...

Delayed and repeated intranasal delivery of bone marrow stromal cells increases regeneration and functional recovery after ischemic stroke in mice

Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide, yet there are limited treatments available. Intranasal administration is a novel non-invasive strategy to deliver cell therapy into the brain. Cells delivered via the intranasal route can migrate from the nasal mucosa to the ischemic infarct and show acute neuroprotection as well as functional benefits. However, there...

Modelling physiological and pathological conditions to study pericyte biology in brain function and dysfunction

Brain pericytes ensheathe the endothelium and contribute to formation and maintenance of the blood–brain-barrier. Additionally, pericytes are involved in several aspects of the CNS immune response including scarring, adhesion molecule expression, chemokine secretion, and phagocytosis. In vitro cultures are routinely used to investigate these functions of brain pericytes, however...

Intraventricular infusion of clusterin ameliorated cognition and pathology in Tg6799 model of Alzheimer’s disease

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is characterized by the deposition of amyloid-β (Aβ) in brain parenchyma and cerebral blood vessels as cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA). Clusterin, a chaperon protein associated with Aβ aggregation, toxicity and transport through blood–brain barrier, may play a key role in the development of AD. Recently, clusterin peptide D-[113–122] was shown to mimic...

Difference in the functional connectivity of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex between smokers with nicotine dependence and individuals with internet gaming disorder

It has been reported that internet gaming disorder (IGD) and smokers with nicotine dependence (SND) share clinical characteristics, such as over-engagement despite negative consequences and cravings. This study is to investigate the alterations in the resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) observed in SND and IGD. In this study...

Normobaric hypoxia overnight impairs cognitive reaction time

Impaired reaction time in patients suffering from hypoxia during sleep, caused by sleep breathing disorders, is a well-described phenomenon. High altitude sleep is known to induce periodic breathing with central apneas and oxygen desaturations, even in perfectly healthy subjects. However, deficits in reaction time in mountaineers or workers after just some nights of hypoxia...

Effectiveness of conservative interventions for sickness and pain behaviors induced by a high repetition high force upper extremity task

Systemic inflammation is known to induce sickness behaviors, including decreased social interaction and pain. We have reported increased serum inflammatory cytokines in a rat model of repetitive strain injury (rats perform an upper extremity reaching task for prolonged periods). Here, we sought to determine if sickness behaviors are induced in this model and the effectiveness of...

Brain metabolic pattern analysis using a magnetic resonance spectra classification software in experimental stroke

Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) provides non-invasive information about the metabolic pattern of the brain parenchyma in vivo. The SpectraClassifier software performs MRS pattern-recognition by determining the spectral features (metabolites) which can be used objectively to classify spectra. Our aim was to develop an Infarct Evolution Classifier and a Brain Regions...

Brain metabolic pattern analysis using a magnetic resonance spectra classification software in experimental stroke

Background Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) provides non-invasive information about the metabolic pattern of the brain parenchyma in vivo. The SpectraClassifier software performs MRS pattern-recognition by determining the spectral features (metabolites) which can be used objectively to classify spectra. Our aim was to develop an Infarct Evolution Classifier and a Brain...

Genistein protects against Aβ 25–35 induced apoptosis of PC12 cells through JNK signaling and modulation of Bcl-2 family messengers

Background Deposition of aggregated amyloid beta (Aβ) protein is hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease, leading to dysfunction and apoptosis of neurons. The isoflavone phytoestrogen compound genistein (Gen) exerts a significant protective effect against Aβ 25–35 induced neurotoxicity and mitochondrial damage in rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells. However, the mechanisms underlying Gen’s...

CX 3 C chemokine receptor 1 deficiency modulates microglia morphology but does not affect lesion size and short-term deficits after experimental stroke

Background The fractalkine/CX 3 C chemokine receptor 1 (CX 3 CR1) pathway has been identified to play an essential role in the chemotaxis of microglia, leukocyte trafficking and microglia/macrophage recruitment. It has also been shown to be important in the regulation of the inflammatory response in the early phase after experimental stroke. The present study was performed to...

Proteomic analyses of limbic regions in neonatal male, female and androgen receptor knockout mice

Background It is well-established that organizational effects of sex steroids during early development are fundamental for sex-typical displays of, for example, mating and aggressive behaviors in rodents and other species. Male and female brains are known to differ with respect to neuronal morphology in particular regions of the brain, including the number and size of neurons...

Hemodynamic effects of intraoperative anesthetics administration in photothrombotic stroke model: a study using laser speckle imaging

Background Previous neuroimaging studies have shown the hemodynamic effect of either preconditioning or postconditioning anesthesia in ischemic stroke model. However, the anesthetic effect in hemodynamics during and immediately after the stroke modeling surgery remains unknown due to the lack of appropriate anesthesia-free stroke model and intraoperative imaging technology. In...

Suppression of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by ultraviolet light is not mediated by isomerization of urocanic acid

Background Ultraviolet B irradiation confers strong resistance against experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, a model of multiple sclerosis. This protection by ultraviolet B is independent of vitamin D production but causes isomerization of urocanic acid, a naturally occurring immunosuppressant. Methods To determine whether UCA isomerization from trans to cis is responsible...

Important modifications by sugammadex, a modified γ-cyclodextrin, of ion currents in differentiated NSC-34 neuronal cells

Background Sugammadex (SGX) is a modified γ-cyclodextrin used for reversal of steroidal neuromuscular blocking agents during general anesthesia. Despite its application in clinical use, whether SGX treatment exerts any effects on membrane ion currents in neurons remains largely unclear. In this study, effects of SGX treatment on ion currents, particularly on delayed-rectifier K...

Why does a cooled object feel heavier? Psychophysical investigations into the Weber’s Phenomenon

Background It has long been known that a concomitantly cooled stimulus is perceived as heavier than the same object at a neutral temperature—termed Weber’s Phenomenon (WP). In the current study, we re-examined this phenomenon using well-controlled force and temperature stimuli to explore the complex interplay between thermal and tactile systems, and the peripheral substrates...

Neural hyperactivity in the amygdala induced by chronic treatment of rats with analgesics may elucidate the mechanisms underlying psychiatric comorbidities associated with medication-overuse headache

Background Patients with medication-overuse headache suffer not only from chronic headache, but often from psychiatric comorbidities, such as anxiety and depression. The mechanisms underlying these comorbidities are unclear, but the amygdala is likely to be involved in their pathogenesis. To investigate the mechanisms underlying the comorbidities we used elevated plus maze and...

Yawning reduces facial temperature in the high-yawning subline of Sprague-Dawley rats

Background Yawning is a stereotyped behavior that enhances blood flow to the skull, and the resulting counterflow has been hypothesized as a mechanism for brain cooling. Studies have shown that yawns are strongly associated with physiological and pathological conditions that increase brain temperature, and that they are followed by equivalent decreases in brain temperature...

The variability of motor evoked potential latencies in neurosurgical motor mapping by preoperative navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation

Background Recording of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) is used during navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS) motor mapping to locate motor function in the human brain. However, factors potentially underlying MEP latency variability in neurosurgical motor mapping are vastly unknown. In the context of this study, one hundred brain tumor patients underwent preoperative...

Expertise-related functional brain network efficiency in healthy older adults

Background In view of age-related brain changes, identifying factors that are associated with healthy aging are of great interest. In the present study, we compared the functional brain network characteristics of three groups of healthy older participants aged 61–75 years who had a different cognitive and motor training history (multi-domain group: participants who had...

Planar cell polarity genes Frizzled3a, Vangl2, and Scribble are required for spinal commissural axon guidance

Background A fundamental feature of early nervous system development is the guidance of axonal projections to their targets in order to assemble neural circuits that control behavior. Spinal commissural neurons are an attractive model to investigate the multiple guidance cues that control growth cone navigation both pre- and post-midline crossing, as well as along both the dorsal...

Investigating potentially salvageable penumbra tissue in an in vivo model of transient ischemic stroke using sodium, diffusion, and perfusion magnetic resonance imaging

Background Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the current-state-of-the-art technique to clinically investigate acute (0–24 h) ischemic stroke tissue. However, reduced apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC)—considered a marker of tissue damage—was observed to reverse spontaneously during the subacute stroke phase (24–72 h) which means that low ADC cannot be used to...