Clinical Infectious Diseases

List of Papers (Total 6,660)

Polyspecific Intravenous Immunoglobulin in Clindamycin-treated Patients With Streptococcal Toxic Shock Syndrome: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

We evaluated the effect of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) on mortality in clindamycin-treated streptococcal toxic shock syndrome using a meta-analysis. In association with IVIG, mortality fell from 33.7% to 15.7% with remarkable consistency across the single randomized and four nonrandomized studies.

Species of Cryptosporidia Causing Subclinical Infection Associated With Growth Faltering in Rural and Urban Bangladesh: A Birth Cohort Study

Cryptosporidiosis is a major cause of childhood diarrhea in low- and middle-income countries and has been linked to impairment of child growth. This study investigated the burden of cryptosporidiosis and its impact on child growth in both a rural and an urban site in Bangladesh.

A Competing-Risk Approach for Modeling Length of Stay in Severe Malaria Patients in South-East Asia and the Implications for Planning of Hospital Services

Management of severe malaria with limited resources requires comprehensive planning. Expected length of stay (LOS) and the factors influencing it are useful in the planning and optimisation of service delivery.

Efficacy and Safety of Glecaprevir/Pibrentasvir in Patients Coinfected With Hepatitis C Virus and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1: The EXPEDITION-2 Study

Once-daily glecaprevir coformulated with pibrentasvir (glecaprevir/pibrentasvir) demonstrated high rates of sustained virologic response 12 weeks after treatment (SVR12) in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1–6 infection. This phase 3 study evaluated the efficacy and safety of glecaprevir/pibrentasvir in patients with chronic HCV genotype 1–6 and human...

Acetaminophen as a Renoprotective Adjunctive Treatment in Patients With Severe and Moderately Severe Falciparum Malaria: A Randomized, Controlled, Open-Label Trial

Acute kidney injury independently predicts mortality in falciparum malaria. It is unknown whether acetaminophen’s capacity to inhibit plasma hemoglobin-mediated oxidation is renoprotective in severe malaria.

A Guide to Utilization of the Microbiology Laboratory for Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases: 2018 Update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America and the American Society for Microbiology

The critical nature of the microbiology laboratory in infectious disease diagnosis calls for a close, positive working relationship between the physician/advanced practice provider and the microbiologists who provide enormous value to the healthcare team. This document, developed by experts in laboratory and adult and pediatric clinical medicine, provides information on which...

Cranial Computed Tomography, Lumbar Puncture, and Clinical Deterioration in Bacterial Meningitis: A Nationwide Cohort Study

It is unclear how often lumbar puncture (LP) is complicated by cerebral herniation in patients with bacterial meningitis and whether cranial computed tomography (CT) can be used to identify patients at risk for herniation.

Delayed Sputum Culture Conversion in Tuberculosis–Human Immunodeficiency Virus–Coinfected Patients With Low Isoniazid and Rifampicin Concentrations

The relationship between concentrations of antituberculosis drugs, sputum culture conversion, and treatment outcome remains unclear. We sought to determine the association between antituberculosis drug concentrations and sputum conversion among patients coinfected with tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and receiving first-line antituberculosis drugs.

Case Fatality Rate of Enteric Fever in Endemic Countries: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

Enteric fever is a febrile illness, occurring mostly in Asia and Africa, which can present as a severe and possibly fatal disease. Currently, a case fatality rate (CFR) of 1% is assumed when evaluating the global burden of enteric fever. Until now, no meta-analysis has been conducted to summarize mortality from enteric fever. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review and meta...

Prolonged Detection of Zika Virus Nucleic Acid Among Symptomatic Pregnant Women: A Cohort Study

A prospective cohort of women with reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) confirmed Zika virus infection aged 18–39 years in Puerto Rico found that pregnant women have about a 3-fold longer estimated median detection of Zika virus RNA in serum, which can increase definitive diagnosis of infection and facilitate timely and appropriate clinical management.

Gepotidacin for the Treatment of Uncomplicated Urogenital Gonorrhea: A Phase 2, Randomized, Dose-Ranging, Single-Oral Dose Evaluation

In this phase 2 study, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of oral gepotidacin, a novel triazaacenaphthylene bacterial type II topoisomerase inhibitor, for the treatment of uncomplicated urogenital gonorrhea.

Influenza-Associated Parotitis During the 2014–2015 Influenza Season in the United States

During the 2014–2015 influenza season in the United States, 256 cases of influenza-associated parotitis were reported from 27 states. We conducted a case-control study and laboratory investigation to further describe this rare clinical manifestation of influenza.

Infectivity of Chronic Malaria Infections and Its Consequences for Control and Elimination

Assessing the importance of targeting the chronic Plasmodium falciparum malaria reservoir is pivotal as the world moves toward malaria eradication. Through the lens of a mathematical model, we show how, for a given malaria prevalence, the relative infectivity of chronic individuals determines what intervention tools are predicted be the most effective. Crucially, in a large part...

The Potential for Treatment Shortening With Higher Rifampicin Doses: Relating Drug Exposure to Treatment Response in Patients With Pulmonary Tuberculosis

Tuberculosis remains a huge public health problem and the prolonged treatment duration obstructs effective tuberculosis control. Higher rifampicin doses have been associated with better bactericidal activity, but optimal dosing is uncertain. This analysis aimed to characterize the relationship between rifampicin plasma exposure and treatment response over 6 months in a recent...

Complementary Paths to Chagas Disease Elimination: The Impact of Combining Vector Control With Etiological Treatment

The World Health Organization’s 2020 goals for Chagas disease are (1) interrupting vector-borne intradomiciliary transmission and (2) having all infected people under care in endemic countries. Insecticide spraying has proved efficacious for reaching the first goal, but active transmission remains in several regions. For the second, treatment has mostly been restricted to...

Models of Trachoma Transmission and Their Policy Implications: From Control to Elimination

Despite great progress in eliminating trachoma from the majority of worldwide districts, trachoma control seems to have stalled in some endemic districts. Can mathematical models help suggest the way forward? We review specific achievements of models in trachoma control in the past. Models showed that, even with incomplete coverage, mass drug administration could eliminate...

How Can Onchocerciasis Elimination in Africa Be Accelerated? Modeling the Impact of Increased Ivermectin Treatment Frequency and Complementary Vector Control

Great strides have been made toward onchocerciasis elimination by mass drug administration (MDA) of ivermectin. Focusing on MDA-eligible areas, we investigated where the elimination goal can be achieved by 2025 by continuation of current practice (annual MDA with ivermectin) and where intensification or additional vector control is required. We did not consider areas hypoendemic...

Immunogenicity and Protection From a Single Dose of Internationally Available Killed Oral Cholera Vaccine: A Systematic Review and Metaanalysis

In addition to improved water supply and sanitation, the 2-dose killed oral cholera vaccine (OCV) is an important tool for the prevention and control of cholera. We aimed to document the immunogenicity and protection (efficacy and effectiveness) conferred by a single OCV dose against cholera. The metaanalysis showed that an estimated 73% and 77% of individuals seroconverted to...

Heavy Cannabis Use Associated With Reduction in Activated and Inflammatory Immune Cell Frequencies in Antiretroviral Therapy–Treated Human Immunodeficiency Virus–Infected Individuals

Cannabis is a widely used drug in the United States, and the frequency of cannabis use in the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected population is disproportionately high. Previous human and macaque studies suggest that cannabis may have an impact on plasma viral load; however, the relationship between cannabis use and HIV-associated systemic inflammation and immune...

Effectiveness of Protease Inhibitor/Nucleos(t)ide Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor–Based Second-line Antiretroviral Therapy for the Treatment of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Infection in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

In sub-Saharan Africa, 25.5 million people are living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), representing 70% of the global total. The need for second-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) is projected to increase in the next decade in keeping with the expansion of treatment provision. Outcome data are required to inform policy.

Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) POSITION STATEMENT: Why IDSA Did Not Endorse the Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines

IDSA did not endorse the 2016 Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines despite being represented in the working group that drafted the guidelines document. Leadership from the IDSA, the Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines, and the Society of Critical Care Medicine had numerous amicable discussions primarily regarding the bolded, rated guidelines recommendations. Our societies had...

Outbreak of Severe Histoplasmosis Among Tunnel Workers—Dominican Republic, 2015

Histoplasmosis is a fungal infection associated with exposure to bat guano. An outbreak of an unknown severe febrile illness occurred among tunnel workers in the Dominican Republic, and resulted in several deaths. We conducted an investigation to confirm etiology and recommend control measures.

Severe Respiratory Illness Associated With Rhinovirus During the Enterovirus D68 Outbreak in the United States, August 2014–November 2014

In 2014, a nationwide outbreak of severe respiratory illness occurred in the United States, primarily associated with enterovirus D68 (EV-D68). A proportion of illness was associated with rhinoviruses (RVs) and other enteroviruses (EVs), which we aimed to characterize further.