Clinical Infectious Diseases

List of Papers (Total 12,090)

Vaccine Effectiveness Against Lineage-matched and -mismatched Influenza B Viruses Across 8 Seasons in Canada, 2010–2011 to 2017–2018

Vaccine effectiveness (VE) against influenza B was derived separately for Victoria and Yamagata lineages across 8 seasons (2010–2011 to 2017–2018) in Canada when trivalent influenza vaccine was predominantly used. VE was ≥50% regardless of lineage match to circulating viruses, except when the vaccine strain was unchanged from the prior season.

Isolation of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria in Southeast Asian and African Human Immunodeficiency Virus–infected Children With Suspected Tuberculosis

We enrolled 427 human immunodeficiency virus–infected children (median age, 7.3 years), 59.2% severely immunodeficient, with suspected tuberculosis in Southeast Asian and African settings. Nontuberculous mycobacteria were isolated in 46 children (10.8%); 45.7% of isolates were Mycobacterium avium complex. Southeast Asian origin, age 5–9 years, and severe immunodeficiency were...

Characteristics of Large Mumps Outbreaks in the United States, July 2010–December 2015

Mumps is an acute viral illness that classically presents with parotitis. Although the United States experienced a 99% reduction in mumps cases following implementation of the 2-dose vaccination program in 1989, mumps has resurged in the past 10 years.

The Epidemiology of Nationally Reported Pertussis in the United States, 2000–2016

Despite successful vaccination programs, pertussis remains endemic in the United States, and increasing incidence has been reported. We used national surveillance data to describe pertussis epidemiology, including patient demographic characteristics, geographic distribution, and temporal trends.

Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness and Statin Use Among Adults in the United States, 2011–2017

Statin medications have immunomodulatory effects. Several recent studies suggest that statins may reduce influenza vaccine response and reduce influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE).

Clinical Practice Guideline for the Management of Asymptomatic Bacteriuria: 2019 Update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America

Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) is a common finding in many populations, including healthy women and persons with underlying urologic abnormalities. The 2005 guideline from the Infectious Diseases Society of America recommended that ASB should be screened for and treated only in pregnant women or in an individual prior to undergoing invasive urologic procedures. Treatment was not...

Valuing the Unpaid Contribution of Community Health Volunteers to Mass Drug Administration Programs

Community health volunteers (CHVs) are being used within a growing number of healthcare interventions, and they have become a cornerstone for the delivery of mass drug administration within many neglected tropical disease control programs. However, a greater understanding of the methods used to value the unpaid time CHVs contribute to healthcare programs is needed. We outline the...

Persistence of Nasopharyngeal Pneumococcal Vaccine Serotypes and Increase of Nonvaccine Serotypes Among Vaccinated Infants and Their Mothers 5 Years After Introduction of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine 13 in The Gambia

The widespread use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) has brought about a dramatic decrease in pneumococci of vaccine serotypes (VTs) but nonvaccine serotypes (NVTs) have emerged.

Incidence of Acute Kidney Injury Among Critically Ill Patients With Brief Empiric Use of Antipseudomonal β-Lactams With Vancomycin

Nephrotoxins contribute to 20%–40% of acute kidney injury (AKI) cases in the intensive care unit (ICU). The combination of piperacillin-tazobactam (PTZ) and vancomycin (VAN) has been identified as nephrotoxic, but existing studies focus on extended durations of therapy rather than the brief empiric courses often used in the ICU. The current study was performed to compare the risk...

Current Epidemiology, Etiology, and Burden of Acute Skin Infections in the United States

The US burden of acute skin infections is substantial. While Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus spp. are the most common causes, gram-negative bacteria and mixed infections can occur in some settings. These mixed infections are more likely to result in inappropriate empiric antibiotic therapy. Important challenges remain in diagnosing and treating acute skin infections.

Maribavir for Refractory or Resistant Cytomegalovirus Infections in Hematopoietic-cell or Solid-organ Transplant Recipients: A Randomized, Dose-ranging, Double-blind, Phase 2 Study

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections that are refractory or resistant (RR) to available antivirals ([val]ganciclovir, foscarnet, cidofovir) are associated with higher mortality in transplant patients. Maribavir is active against RR CMV strains.

Herd Immunity Likely Protected the Men Who Have Sex With Men in the Recent Hepatitis A Outbreak in San Diego, California

A high seroprevalence of hepatitis A virus (81%) among human immunodeficiency virus–negative high-risk men who have sex with men is likely why this community was largely spared from a recent hepatitis A virus outbreak in San Diego, California.

Host Cell Deoxyribonucleic Acid Methylation Markers for the Detection of High-grade Anal Intraepithelial Neoplasia and Anal Cancer

High-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN2/3; HGAIN) is highly prevalent in human immunodeficiency virus positive (HIV+) men who have sex with men (MSM), but only a minority will eventually progress to cancer. Currently, the cancer risk cannot be established, and therefore all HGAIN is treated, resulting in overtreatment. We assessed host cell deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA...

A Therapeutic Strategy for All Pneumonia Patients: A 3-Year Prospective Multicenter Cohort Study Using Risk Factors for Multidrug-resistant Pathogens to Select Initial Empiric Therapy

Empiric therapy of pneumonia is currently based on the site of acquisition (community or hospital), but could be chosen, based on risk factors for multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens, independent of site of acquisition.

Accelerating Typhoid Conjugate Vaccine Introduction: What Can Be Learned From Prior New Vaccine Introduction Initiatives?

The health consequences of typhoid, including increasing prevalence of drug-resistant strains, can stress healthcare systems. While vaccination is one of the most successful and cost-effective health interventions, vaccine introduction can take years and require considerable effort. The Typhoid Vaccine Acceleration Consortium (TyVAC) employs an integrated, proactive approach to...

The Coalition Against Typhoid: Mobilizing a Community for a Global Fight

Typhoid became a low priority on the global public health agenda when it was largely eliminated from developed countries in the 1940s. However, communities in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa continue to bear the brunt of the disease burden. One strategy to increase attention and coordinate action is the creation of a coalition to act as a steward for typhoid. The Coalition...

Forecasting Demand for the Typhoid Conjugate Vaccine in Low- and Middle-income Countries

The World Health Organization (WHO) released a position paper in March 2018 calling for integration of a novel typhoid conjugate vaccine (TCV) into routine immunization along with catch-up campaigns for children up to age 15. Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, has committed funding to help resource-constrained countries introduce this vaccine. In this article, the Typhoid Vaccine...

Community Engagement Before Initiation of Typhoid Conjugate Vaccine Trial in Schools in Two Urban Townships in Blantyre, Malawi: Experience and Lessons

To determine the efficacy of a new typhoid conjugate vaccine in an endemic setting in sub-Saharan Africa, the Typhoid Vaccine Acceleration Consortium is conducting a phase-3 randomized controlled trial in Blantyre, Malawi. This article describes community and stakeholder engagement activities before and during the trial, challenges, and lessons learned.

Logistics of Implementing a Large-scale Typhoid Vaccine Trial in Kathmandu, Nepal

Typhoid fever is estimated to affect over 20 million people per year worldwide, with infants, children, and adolescents in south-central and southeast Asia experiencing the greatest burden of disease. The Typhoid Vaccine Acceleration Consortium (TyVAC) aims to support the introduction of typhoid conjugate vaccines into Gavi-eligible countries in an effort to reduce morbidity and...

Epidemiology of Typhoid and Paratyphoid: Implications for Vaccine Policy

Typhoid and paratyphoid remain the most common bloodstream infections in many resource-poor settings. The World Health Organization recommends typhoid conjugate vaccines for country-specific introduction, but questions regarding typhoid and paratyphoid epidemiology persist, especially regarding their severity in young children.

Global Typhoid Fever Incidence: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

Contemporary incidence estimates of typhoid fever are needed to guide policy decisions and control measures and to improve future epidemiological studies.

A Review of the Economic Evidence of Typhoid Fever and Typhoid Vaccines

Typhoid places a substantial economic burden on low- and middle-income countries. We performed a literature review and critical overview of typhoid-related economic issues to inform vaccine introduction. We searched 4 literature databases, covering 2000–2017, to identify typhoid-related cost-of-illness (COI) studies, cost-of-delivery studies, cost-effectiveness analyses (CEAs...

Assessing the Impact of a Vi-polysaccharide Conjugate Vaccine in Preventing Typhoid Infection Among Bangladeshi Children: A Protocol for a Phase IIIb Trial

Typhoid fever illnesses are responsible for more than 100 000 deaths worldwide each year. In Bangladesh, typhoid fever is endemic, with incidence rates between 292–395 per 100 000 people annually. While considerable effort has been made to improve access to clean water and sanitation services in the country, there is still a significant annual typhoid burden, which particularly...