Clinical Infectious Diseases

https://academic.oup.com/cid

List of Papers (Total 9,603)

National Survey of United States Human Immunodeficiency Virus Medical Providers’ Knowledge and Attitudes About the Affordable Care Act

The Affordable Care Act (ACA) affects United States’ healthcare by offering Medicaid expansion and tax subsidies to persons with low incomes, and its interaction with the current human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) healthcare delivery system is complex. The objective was to explore HIV medical providers’ knowledge and attitudes about the ACA.

Burden of Severe Norovirus Disease in Taiwan, 2003–2013

Despite the increasingly recognized role of norovirus in global acute gastroenteritis (AGE), specific estimates of the associated disease burden remain sparse, primarily due to limited availability of sensitive norovirus diagnostics in the clinical setting. We sought to estimate the incidence of norovirus-associated hospitalizations by age group in Taiwan using a previously...

Species of Cryptosporidia Causing Subclinical Infection Associated With Growth Faltering in Rural and Urban Bangladesh: A Birth Cohort Study

Cryptosporidiosis is a major cause of childhood diarrhea in low- and middle-income countries and has been linked to impairment of child growth. This study investigated the burden of cryptosporidiosis and its impact on child growth in both a rural and an urban site in Bangladesh.

A Competing-Risk Approach for Modeling Length of Stay in Severe Malaria Patients in South-East Asia and the Implications for Planning of Hospital Services

Management of severe malaria with limited resources requires comprehensive planning. Expected length of stay (LOS) and the factors influencing it are useful in the planning and optimisation of service delivery.

Malaria and Nutritional Status Among Children With Severe Acute Malnutrition in Niger: A Prospective Cohort Study

The relationship between malaria infection and nutritional status is complex. Previous studies suggest malaria may increase the incidence and severity of malnutrition, while malnutrition may increase the risk of malaria infection. Here, we report bidirectional associations between malaria and nutritional status among children with uncomplicated severe acute malnutrition (SAM).

Efficacy and Safety of Glecaprevir/Pibrentasvir in Patients Coinfected With Hepatitis C Virus and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1: The EXPEDITION-2 Study

Once-daily glecaprevir coformulated with pibrentasvir (glecaprevir/pibrentasvir) demonstrated high rates of sustained virologic response 12 weeks after treatment (SVR12) in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1–6 infection. This phase 3 study evaluated the efficacy and safety of glecaprevir/pibrentasvir in patients with chronic HCV genotype 1–6 and human...

Primaquine Pharmacokinetics in Lactating Women and Breastfed Infant Exposures

Primaquine is the only drug providing radical cure of Plasmodium vivax malaria. It is not recommended for breastfeeding women as it causes hemolysis in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)–deficient individuals, and breast milk excretion and thus infant exposure are not known.

Acetaminophen as a Renoprotective Adjunctive Treatment in Patients With Severe and Moderately Severe Falciparum Malaria: A Randomized, Controlled, Open-Label Trial

Acute kidney injury independently predicts mortality in falciparum malaria. It is unknown whether acetaminophen’s capacity to inhibit plasma hemoglobin-mediated oxidation is renoprotective in severe malaria.

A Guide to Utilization of the Microbiology Laboratory for Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases: 2018 Update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America and the American Society for Microbiology

The critical nature of the microbiology laboratory in infectious disease diagnosis calls for a close, positive working relationship between the physician/advanced practice provider and the microbiologists who provide enormous value to the healthcare team. This document, developed by experts in laboratory and adult and pediatric clinical medicine, provides information on which...

Strengthening Acute Flaccid Paralysis Surveillance Through the Village Polio Volunteers Program in Somalia

Surveillance for cases of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) is a key strategy adopted for the eradication of polio. Detection of poliovirus circulation is often predicated on the ability to identify AFP cases and test their stool specimens for poliovirus infection in a timely manner. The Village Polio Volunteers (VPV) program was established in 2013 in a bid to strengthen polio...

Cranial Computed Tomography, Lumbar Puncture, and Clinical Deterioration in Bacterial Meningitis: A Nationwide Cohort Study

It is unclear how often lumbar puncture (LP) is complicated by cerebral herniation in patients with bacterial meningitis and whether cranial computed tomography (CT) can be used to identify patients at risk for herniation.

Large Outbreak of Hepatitis C Virus Associated With Drug Diversion by a Healthcare Technician

In May 2012, the New Hampshire (NH) Division of Public Health Services (DPHS) was notified of 4 persons with newly diagnosed hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection at hospital X. Initial investigation suggested a common link to the hospital cardiac catheterization laboratory (CCL) because the infected persons included 3 CCL patients and a CCL technician. NH DPHS initiated an...

Longitudinal Assessment of Multidrug-Resistant Organisms in Newly Admitted Nursing Facility Patients: Implications for an Evolving Population

The spread of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) is a global concern, and much about transmission in healthcare systems remains unknown. To reduce hospital stays, nursing facilities (NFs) have increasingly assumed care of post–acute populations. We estimate the prevalence of MDRO colonization in NF patients on enrollment and discharge to community settings, risk factors for...

A Controlled Trial of Mass Drug Administration to Interrupt Transmission of Multidrug-Resistant Falciparum Malaria in Cambodian Villages

The increase in multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum in Southeast Asia suggests a need for acceleration of malaria elimination. We evaluated the effectiveness and safety of mass drug administration (MDA) to interrupt malaria transmission.

A Guide to Utilization of the Microbiology Laboratory for Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases: 2018 Update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America and the American Society for Microbiology

The critical nature of the microbiology laboratory in infectious disease diagnosis calls for a close, positive working relationship between the physician/advanced practice provider and the microbiologists who provide enormous value to the healthcare team. This document, developed by experts in laboratory and adult and pediatric clinical medicine, provides information on which...

Delayed Sputum Culture Conversion in Tuberculosis–Human Immunodeficiency Virus–Coinfected Patients With Low Isoniazid and Rifampicin Concentrations

The relationship between concentrations of antituberculosis drugs, sputum culture conversion, and treatment outcome remains unclear. We sought to determine the association between antituberculosis drug concentrations and sputum conversion among patients coinfected with tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and receiving first-line antituberculosis drugs.

Significant Patient Impact Observed Upon Implementation of Point-of-Care Early Infant Diagnosis Technologies in an Observational Study in Malawi

In Malawi in 2014, <20% of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–exposed infants received an early infant diagnosis (EID) test in the first 2 months of life and only 30% of HIV-infected children were on antiretroviral therapy (ART). We sought to understand the potential patient impact of improving timely infant diagnosis and treatment initiation through implementation of point-of...

Estimating the Hospital Burden of Norovirus-Associated Gastroenteritis in England and Its Opportunity Costs for Nonadmitted Patients

Norovirus places a substantial burden on healthcare systems, arising from infected patients, disease outbreaks, beds kept unoccupied for infection control, and staff absences due to infection. In settings with high rates of bed occupancy, opportunity costs arise from patients who cannot be admitted due to beds being unavailable. With several treatments and vaccines against...

Effects of Pre-exposure Prophylaxis for the Prevention of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection on Sexual Risk Behavior in Men Who Have Sex With Men: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is effective in reducing HIV risk in men who have sex with men (MSM). However, concerns remain that risk compensation in PrEP users may lead to decreased condom use and increased incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We assessed the impact of PrEP on sexual risk outcomes in MSM.

Case Fatality Rate of Enteric Fever in Endemic Countries: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

Enteric fever is a febrile illness, occurring mostly in Asia and Africa, which can present as a severe and possibly fatal disease. Currently, a case fatality rate (CFR) of 1% is assumed when evaluating the global burden of enteric fever. Until now, no meta-analysis has been conducted to summarize mortality from enteric fever. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review and meta...

Prolonged Detection of Zika Virus Nucleic Acid Among Symptomatic Pregnant Women: A Cohort Study

A prospective cohort of women with reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) confirmed Zika virus infection aged 18–39 years in Puerto Rico found that pregnant women have about a 3-fold longer estimated median detection of Zika virus RNA in serum, which can increase definitive diagnosis of infection and facilitate timely and appropriate clinical management.

Gepotidacin for the Treatment of Uncomplicated Urogenital Gonorrhea: A Phase 2, Randomized, Dose-Ranging, Single-Oral Dose Evaluation

In this phase 2 study, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of oral gepotidacin, a novel triazaacenaphthylene bacterial type II topoisomerase inhibitor, for the treatment of uncomplicated urogenital gonorrhea.

Influenza-Associated Parotitis During the 2014–2015 Influenza Season in the United States

During the 2014–2015 influenza season in the United States, 256 cases of influenza-associated parotitis were reported from 27 states. We conducted a case-control study and laboratory investigation to further describe this rare clinical manifestation of influenza.