Clinical Infectious Diseases

List of Papers (Total 9,606)

Statin Use and Risks of Influenza-Related Outcomes Among Older Adults Receiving Standard-Dose or High-Dose Influenza Vaccines Through Medicare During 2010–2015

Statins are used to reduce cardiovascular disease risk. Recent studies suggest that statin use may be associated with an increased influenza risk among influenza vaccinees. We used Medicare data to evaluate associations between statins and risks of influenza-related encounters among vaccinees.

Should Acute Q-Fever Patients be Screened for Valvulopathy to Prevent Endocarditis?

Echocardiographic screening of acute Q-fever patients and antibiotic prophylaxis for patients with cardiac valvulopathy is considered an important approach to prevent chronic Q-fever-related endocarditis. During a large Q-fever epidemic in the Netherlands, routine screening echocardiography was discontinued, raising controversy in the international literature. We followed a...

Why Funding for Neglected Tropical Diseases Should Be a Global Priority

Neglected tropical diseases affect >1 billion of the world’s poorest persons. Control programs range from near-elimination (dracunculiasis) to increasing prevalence (dengue and cutaneous leishmaniasis). These are some of the most cost-effective public health interventions and should be a global priority.

Infectivity of Chronic Malaria Infections and Its Consequences for Control and Elimination

Assessing the importance of targeting the chronic Plasmodium falciparum malaria reservoir is pivotal as the world moves toward malaria eradication. Through the lens of a mathematical model, we show how, for a given malaria prevalence, the relative infectivity of chronic individuals determines what intervention tools are predicted be the most effective. Crucially, in a large part...

Opportunities to Improve Fluoroquinolone Prescribing in the United States for Adult Ambulatory Care Visits

The Food and Drug Administration warned against fluoroquinolone use for conditions with effective alternative agents. An estimated 5.1% of adult ambulatory fluoroquinolone prescriptions were for conditions that did not require antibiotics, and 19.9% were for conditions where fluoroquinolones are not recommended first-line therapy. Unnecessary fluoroquinolone use should be reduced.

Travelers’ Diarrhea in Thailand: A Quantitative Analysis Using TaqMan® Array Card

Travelers’ diarrhea (TD) is a common illness experienced by travelers from developed countries who visit developing countries. Recent questionnaire-based surveillance studies showed that approximately 6%–16% of travelers experienced TD while visiting Thailand; however, a majority of TD information was limited mainly to US military populations.

Cancer Risk in Older Persons Living With Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in the United States

Cancer risk is increased in persons living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (PLWH). Improved survival has led to an aging of PLWH. We evaluated the cancer risk in older PLWH (age ≥50 years).

The Potential for Treatment Shortening With Higher Rifampicin Doses: Relating Drug Exposure to Treatment Response in Patients With Pulmonary Tuberculosis

Tuberculosis remains a huge public health problem and the prolonged treatment duration obstructs effective tuberculosis control. Higher rifampicin doses have been associated with better bactericidal activity, but optimal dosing is uncertain. This analysis aimed to characterize the relationship between rifampicin plasma exposure and treatment response over 6 months in a recent...

Complementary Paths to Chagas Disease Elimination: The Impact of Combining Vector Control With Etiological Treatment

The World Health Organization’s 2020 goals for Chagas disease are (1) interrupting vector-borne intradomiciliary transmission and (2) having all infected people under care in endemic countries. Insecticide spraying has proved efficacious for reaching the first goal, but active transmission remains in several regions. For the second, treatment has mostly been restricted to...

Assessing Strategies Against Gambiense Sleeping Sickness Through Mathematical Modeling

Control of gambiense sleeping sickness relies predominantly on passive and active screening of people, followed by treatment.

Models of Trachoma Transmission and Their Policy Implications: From Control to Elimination

Despite great progress in eliminating trachoma from the majority of worldwide districts, trachoma control seems to have stalled in some endemic districts. Can mathematical models help suggest the way forward? We review specific achievements of models in trachoma control in the past. Models showed that, even with incomplete coverage, mass drug administration could eliminate...

How Can Onchocerciasis Elimination in Africa Be Accelerated? Modeling the Impact of Increased Ivermectin Treatment Frequency and Complementary Vector Control

Great strides have been made toward onchocerciasis elimination by mass drug administration (MDA) of ivermectin. Focusing on MDA-eligible areas, we investigated where the elimination goal can be achieved by 2025 by continuation of current practice (annual MDA with ivermectin) and where intensification or additional vector control is required. We did not consider areas hypoendemic...

Counting Down the 2020 Goals for 9 Neglected Tropical Diseases: What Have We Learned From Quantitative Analysis and Transmission Modeling?

The control of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) has received huge investment in recent years, leading to large reductions in morbidity. In 2012, the World Health Organization set ambitious targets for eliminating many of these diseases as a public health problem by 2020, an aspiration that was supported by donations of treatments, intervention materials, and funding committed...

Immunogenicity and Protection From a Single Dose of Internationally Available Killed Oral Cholera Vaccine: A Systematic Review and Metaanalysis

In addition to improved water supply and sanitation, the 2-dose killed oral cholera vaccine (OCV) is an important tool for the prevention and control of cholera. We aimed to document the immunogenicity and protection (efficacy and effectiveness) conferred by a single OCV dose against cholera. The metaanalysis showed that an estimated 73% and 77% of individuals seroconverted to...

Heavy Cannabis Use Associated With Reduction in Activated and Inflammatory Immune Cell Frequencies in Antiretroviral Therapy–Treated Human Immunodeficiency Virus–Infected Individuals

Cannabis is a widely used drug in the United States, and the frequency of cannabis use in the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected population is disproportionately high. Previous human and macaque studies suggest that cannabis may have an impact on plasma viral load; however, the relationship between cannabis use and HIV-associated systemic inflammation and immune...

Effectiveness of Protease Inhibitor/Nucleos(t)ide Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor–Based Second-line Antiretroviral Therapy for the Treatment of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Infection in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

In sub-Saharan Africa, 25.5 million people are living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), representing 70% of the global total. The need for second-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) is projected to increase in the next decade in keeping with the expansion of treatment provision. Outcome data are required to inform policy.

A Systematic Review of Safety and Immunogenicity of Influenza Vaccination Strategies in Solid Organ Transplant Recipients

Immunogenicity from seasonal inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) remains suboptimal in solid organ transplant recipients (SOTRs). We conducted a systematic review that compared the safety and immunogenicity of nonstandard influenza vaccination strategies with single-dose IIV in SOTRs. Booster doses and possibly high-dose (HD) influenza vaccination strategies seem to hold promise...

Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) POSITION STATEMENT: Why IDSA Did Not Endorse the Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines

IDSA did not endorse the 2016 Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines despite being represented in the working group that drafted the guidelines document. Leadership from the IDSA, the Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines, and the Society of Critical Care Medicine had numerous amicable discussions primarily regarding the bolded, rated guidelines recommendations. Our societies had...

A Two-Center Randomized Trial of an Additional Early Dose of Measles Vaccine: Effects on Mortality and Measles Antibody Levels

In addition to protecting against measles, measles vaccine (MV) may have beneficial nonspecific effects. We tested the effect of an additional early MV on mortality and measles antibody levels.

Outbreak of Severe Histoplasmosis Among Tunnel Workers—Dominican Republic, 2015

Histoplasmosis is a fungal infection associated with exposure to bat guano. An outbreak of an unknown severe febrile illness occurred among tunnel workers in the Dominican Republic, and resulted in several deaths. We conducted an investigation to confirm etiology and recommend control measures.

Acute Retroviral Syndrome Is Associated With High Viral Burden, CD4 Depletion, and Immune Activation in Systemic and Tissue Compartments

Many individuals with acute human immunodeficiency virus infection (AHI) experience acute retroviral syndrome (ARS), which is associated with adverse long-term clinical outcomes.

Severe Respiratory Illness Associated With Rhinovirus During the Enterovirus D68 Outbreak in the United States, August 2014–November 2014

In 2014, a nationwide outbreak of severe respiratory illness occurred in the United States, primarily associated with enterovirus D68 (EV-D68). A proportion of illness was associated with rhinoviruses (RVs) and other enteroviruses (EVs), which we aimed to characterize further.