Clinical Infectious Diseases

https://academic.oup.com/cid

List of Papers (Total 9,607)

The Differential Effects of Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Hepatitis C Virus on Bone Microarchitecture and Fracture Risk

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/hepatitis C virus (HCV)–coinfected individuals have a significantly greater osteoporotic fracture risk than HIV-monoinfected persons, despite the fact that HIV/HCV coinfection has not been associated with lower bone mineral density (BMD) than HIV or HCV alone. To evaluate if changes in bone microarchitecture, measured by trabecular bone score...

Rifaximin Fails to Prevent Campylobacteriosis in the Human Challenge Model: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

Campylobacter species are a leading cause of diarrheal disease globally with significant morbidity. Primary prevention efforts have yielded limited results. Rifaximin chemoprophylaxis decreases rates of travelers’ diarrhea and may be suitable for high-risk persons. We assessed the efficacy of rifaximin in the controlled human infection model for Campylobacter jejuni.

The Changing Paradigm of Management of Liver Abscesses in Chronic Granulomatous Disease

Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a rare genetic disorder causing recurrent infections. More than one-quarter of patients develop hepatic abscesses and liver dysfunction. Recent reports suggest that disease-modifying treatment with corticosteroids is effective for these abscesses. Comparison of corticosteroid therapy to traditional invasive treatments has not been performed.

Description of a Mass Poisoning in a Rural District in Mozambique: The First Documented Bongkrekic Acid Poisoning in Africa

On 9 January 2015, in a rural town in Mozambique, >230 persons became sick and 75 died of an illness linked to drinking pombe, a traditional alcoholic beverage.

Evaluation of a Novel Global Immunity Assay to Predict Infection in Organ Transplant Recipients

Solid organ transplant recipients (SOTRs) are predisposed to infection due to the need for lifelong immunosuppression, although tools to measure the overall degree of immunosuppression are limited. In this study, we used a novel global cell-mediated immunity (CMI) assay to quantify the degree of immunosuppression and predict subsequent infections.

Economic Evaluations of Mass Drug Administration: The Importance of Economies of Scale and Scope

It is recognized that changing the current approaches for the control of the neglected tropical diseases will be needed to reach the World Health Organization’s (WHO) 2020 goals. Consequently, it is important that economic evaluations of the alternative approaches are conducted. A vital component of such evaluations is the issue of how the intervention’s costs should be...

Current Epidemiology and Trends in Meningococcal Disease—United States, 1996–2015

In 2005, meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MenACWY) was recommended for routine use among adolescents aged 11–18 years. This report describes the epidemiologic features of meningococcal disease and trends in meningococcal disease incidence following MenACWY introduction in the United States.

A Phase 3, Randomized, Double-Blind, Multicenter Study to Evaluate the Safety and Efficacy of Intravenous Iclaprim Vs Vancomycin for the Treatment of Acute Bacterial Skin and Skin Structure Infections Suspected or Confirmed to be Due to Gram-Positive Pathogens: REVIVE-1

Our objective in this study was to demonstrate the safety and efficacy of iclaprim compared with vancomycin for the treatment of patients with acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSIs).

Trends and Predictors of Syphilis Prevalence in the General Population: Global Pooled Analyses of 1103 Prevalence Measures Including 136 Million Syphilis Tests

This study assessed levels, trends, and associations of observed syphilis prevalence in the general adult population using global pooled analyses.

Impact of Dengue Vaccination on Serological Diagnosis: Insights From Phase III Dengue Vaccine Efficacy Trials

We previously reported that vaccination with the tetravalent dengue vaccine (CYD-TDV; Dengvaxia) may bias the diagnosis of dengue based on immunoglobulin M (IgM) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) assessments.

Adolescent Wound-Care Self-Efficacy and Practices After Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision—A Multicountry Assessment

Adolescent boys (aged 10–19 years) constitute the majority of voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) clients in sub-Saharan Africa. They are at higher risk of postoperative infections compared to adults. We explored adolescents’ wound-care knowledge, self-efficacy, and practices after VMMC to inform strategies for reducing the risks of infectious complications postoperatively.

Counseling Received by Adolescents Undergoing Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision: Moving Toward Age-Equitable Comprehensive Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevention Measures

The minimum package of voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) services, as defined by the World Health Organization, includes human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing, HIV prevention counseling, screening/treatment for sexually transmitted infections, condom promotion, and the VMMC procedure. The current study aimed to assess whether adolescents received these key elements.

Perceived Quality of In-Service Communication and Counseling Among Adolescents Undergoing Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision

Experience with providers shapes the quality of adolescent health services, including voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC). This study examined the perceived quality of in-service communication and counseling during adolescent VMMC services.

Providers’ Perceptions and Training Needs for Counseling Adolescents Undergoing Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision

The majority of individuals who seek voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) services in sub-Saharan Africa are adolescents (ages 10–19 years). However, adolescents who obtain VMMC services report receiving little information on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention and care. In this study, we assessed the perceptions of VMMC facility managers and providers about...

Parental Communication, Engagement, and Support During the Adolescent Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision Experience

Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) is one of few opportunities in sub-Saharan Africa to engage male adolescents in the healthcare system. Limited data are available on the level of parental communication, engagement, and support adolescents receive during the VMMC experience.

Females’ Peer Influence and Support for Adolescent Males Receiving Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision Services

While female involvement in voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) has been studied among adults, little is known about the influence of adolescent females on their male counterparts. This study explored adolescent females’ involvement in VMMC decision making and the postoperative wound healing process in South Africa, Tanzania, and Zimbabwe.

Age Differences in Perceptions of and Motivations for Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision Among Adolescents in South Africa, Tanzania, and Zimbabwe

The World Health Organization (WHO) and the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) have set a Fast-Track goal to achieve 90% coverage of voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) among boys and men aged 10–29 years in priority settings by 2021. We aimed to identify age-specific facilitators of VMMC uptake among adolescents.

Scaling Up Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevention for Adolescents and Young Adult Men: A Modeling Analysis of Implementation and Impact in Selected Countries

The new World Health Organization and Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS strategic framework for voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) aims to increase VMMC coverage among males aged 10–29 years in priority settings to 90% by 2021. We use mathematical modeling to assess the likelihood that selected countries will achieve this objective, given their historical VMMC...

Adolescent Male Circumcision for HIV Prevention in High Priority Countries: Opportunities for Improvement

Global experts recognize the need to transform conventional models of healthcare to create adolescent responsive health systems. As countries near 80% coverage of voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) for those aged 15–49 years, prioritization of younger men becomes critical to VMMC sustainability. This special supplement reporting 9 studies focusing on adolescent VMMC...