Clinical Infectious Diseases

List of Papers (Total 9,031)

Long-term Clinical Outcomes in Visceral Leishmaniasis/Human Immunodeficiency Virus–Coinfected Patients During and After Pentamidine Secondary Prophylaxis in Ethiopia: A Single-Arm Clinical Trial

We have conducted a single-arm trial evaluating monthly pentamidine secondary prophylaxis (PSP) to prevent visceral leishmaniasis (VL) relapse in Ethiopian human immunodeficiency virus–infected patients. Outcomes at 12 months of PSP have been previously reported, supporting PSP effectiveness and safety. However, remaining relapse-free after PSP discontinuation is vital. We now...



A Case of Adult Intestinal Toxemia Botulism During Prolonged Hospitalization in an Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplant Recipient

We report a laboratory-confirmed case of adult intestinal toxemia botulism in an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HCT) recipient. Onset of symptoms occurred within the hospitalized setting, making this case particularly unique. Botulism may have arisen because of significant intestinal disruption and compromise, and not directly from immune compromise.

A Case of Localized, Unilateral (Cephalic) Wound Botulism

We describe a rare presentation of botulism originally presenting with exclusively unilateral cranial nerve deficits following a puncture wound to the face. Cephalic tetanus was initially suspected but laboratory testing confirmed botulism. Botulism caused by local diffusion of toxin from a contaminated head wound can be confused with cephalic tetanus.

Type F Infant Botulism: Investigation of Recent Clusters and Overview of This Exceedingly Rare Disease

From 1976 to 2016, neurotoxigenic Clostridium baratii type F caused 18 (<0.5%) reported US infant botulism cases. Six cases occurred during 2012–2013; no common source was identified. Type F infant botulism mostly occurs in very young infants and typically presents more rapidly and severely than illness caused by types A and B botulinum neurotoxin.

Safety and Improved Clinical Outcomes in Patients Treated With New Equine-Derived Heptavalent Botulinum Antitoxin

Botulism is a rare, life-threatening paralytic illness. Equine-derived heptavalent botulinum antitoxin (HBAT), the only currently available treatment for noninfant botulism in the United States, was licensed in 2013. No reports have systematically examined safety and clinical benefit of HBAT among botulism patients.

Efficacy of Antitoxin Therapy in Treating Patients With Foodborne Botulism: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Cases, 1923–2016

Botulism is a rare, potentially severe illness, often fatal if not appropriately treated. Data on treatment are sparse. We systematically evaluated the literature on botulinum antitoxin and other treatments.

Botulism During Pregnancy and the Postpartum Period: A Systematic Review

Maternal and fetal outcomes associated with botulism and botulinum antitoxin use during pregnancy and the postpartum period have not been systematically reviewed.

Pediatric Botulism and Use of Equine Botulinum Antitoxin in Children: A Systematic Review

Botulism manifests with cranial nerve palsies and flaccid paralysis in children and adults. Botulism must be rapidly identified and treated; however, clinical presentation and treatment outcomes of noninfant botulism in children are not well described.


Influenza A(H5N1) Virus Infection in a Child With Encephalitis Complicated by Obstructive Hydrocephalus

A 2-year-old boy with highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) virus infection with minimal respiratory symptoms developed encephalitis complicated by obstructive hydrocephalus. Viral RNA was detectable in cerebrospinal fluid. The virus belonged to H5N1 clade and had acquired the mammalian adaptation mutation PB2 Q591K.

Disability Among Ebola Survivors and Their Close Contacts in Sierra Leone: A Retrospective Case-Controlled Cohort Study

Ebola survivors (21/27 [77.8%]) suffered more disability than their close contacts (6/54 [11.1%]) (adjusted odds ratio, 23.5 [95% confidence interval, 6.5–85.7]; P < .001) when measured by the Washington Group Disability Extended Questionnaire. Major limitations in vision, mobility, cognition, and affect were observed in survivors 1 year following the 2014–2016 Ebola outbreak...

In- and Out-of-hospital Mortality Associated with Seasonal and Pandemic Influenza and Respiratory Syncytial Virus in South Africa, 2009–2013

Estimates of influenza- and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-associated mortality burden are important to guide policy for control. Data are limited on the contribution of out-of-hospital deaths to this mortality.

Cost Drivers of a Hospital-Acquired Bacterial Pneumonia and Ventilator-Associated Bacterial Pneumonia Phase 3 Clinical Trial

Studies indicate that the prevalence of multidrug-resistant infections, including hospital-acquired bacterial pneumonia and ventilator-associated bacterial pneumonia (HABP/VABP), has been rising. There are many challenges associated with these disease conditions and the ability to develop new treatments. Additionally, HABP/VABP clinical trials are very costly to conduct given...

The Manufacturers’ Perspective on World Health Organization Prequalification of In Vitro Diagnostics

In vitro diagnostic devices (IVDs) help clinicians determine specific conditions, monitor therapeutic efficacy, and prevent drug resistance development. While stringent regulatory authorities (SRAs) regulate IVDs in most high-income countries, regulatory authorities in many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are nonexistent or do not enforce rigorous standards. In 2010, the...

Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Associated Chronic Lung Disease in Children and Adolescents in Zimbabwe: Chest Radiographic and High-Resolution Computed Tomographic Findings

Chronic respiratory symptoms are common among children living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We investigated the radiological features of chronic lung disease in children aged 6–16 years receiving antiretroviral therapy for ≥6 months in Harare, Zimbabwe.



Acute Retinal Necrosis Caused by the Zoster Vaccine Virus

We report acute retinal necrosis caused by the vaccine Oka strain following immunization of a 78-year-old woman with live zoster vaccine. Whole genome sequencing confirmed the ocular vOka strain to be derived from the vaccine and excluded the presence of new mutations or recombination with wild-type Varicella zoster virus.

Trial Evaluating Ambulatory Therapy of Travelers’ Diarrhea (TrEAT TD) Study: A Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing 3 Single-Dose Antibiotic Regimens With Loperamide

Recommended treatment for travelers’ diarrhea includes the combination of an antibiotic, usually a fluoroquinolone or azithromycin, and loperamide for rapid resolution of symptoms. However, adverse events, postdose nausea with high-dose azithromycin, effectiveness of single-dose rifaximin, and emerging resistance to front-line agents are evidence gaps underlying current...