Clinical Infectious Diseases

https://academic.oup.com/cid

List of Papers (Total 9,032)

Impact of Rotavirus Vaccine Introduction and Postintroduction Etiology of Diarrhea Requiring Hospital Admission in Haydom, Tanzania, a Rural African Setting

No data are available on the etiology of diarrhea requiring hospitalization after rotavirus vaccine introduction in Africa. The monovalent rotavirus vaccine was introduced in Tanzania on 1 January 2013. We performed a vaccine impact and effectiveness study as well as a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)–based etiology study at a rural Tanzanian hospital.

Whole-Genome Cardiac DNA Methylation Fingerprint and Gene Expression Analysis Provide New Insights in the Pathogenesis of Chronic Chagas Disease Cardiomyopathy

Chagas disease, caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, is endemic in Latin America and affects 10 million people worldwide. Approximately 12000 deaths attributable to Chagas disease occur annually due to chronic Chagas disease cardiomyopathy (CCC), an inflammatory cardiomyopathy presenting with heart failure and arrythmia; 30% of infected subjects develop CCC years after...

Identifying Gaps in Respiratory Syncytial Virus Disease Epidemiology in the United States Prior to the Introduction of Vaccines

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes lower respiratory tract illness frequently. No effective antivirals or vaccines for RSV are approved for use in the United States; however, there are at least 50 vaccines and monoclonal antibody products in development, with those targeting older adults and pregnant women (to protect young infants) in phase 2 and 3 clinical trials...

Serum LL-37 Levels Associated With Severity of Bronchiolitis and Viral Etiology

LL-37 is a host defense peptide with antimicrobial and immunomodulatory properties. We examined the relation of serum LL-37 levels to the severity of bronchiolitis and viral etiology.

Impact of Vitamin A and Carotenoids on the Risk of Tuberculosis Progression

Low and deficient levels of vitamin A are common in low- and middle-income countries where tuberculosis burden is high. We assessed the impact of baseline levels of vitamin A and carotenoids on tuberculosis disease risk.

Advanced Human Immunodeficiency Virus Disease in Botswana Following Successful Antiretroviral Therapy Rollout: Incidence of and Temporal Trends in Cryptococcal Meningitis

Botswana has a well-developed antiretroviral therapy (ART) program that serves as a regional model. With wide ART availability, the burden of advanced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and associated opportunistic infections would be expected to decline. We performed a nationwide surveillance study to determine the national incidence of cryptococcal meningitis (CM), and describe...

Cancer-Attributable Mortality Among People With Treated Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in North America

Cancer remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality in people with human immunodeficiency virus (PWHIV) on effective antiretroviral therapy (ART). Estimates of cancer-attributable mortality can inform public health efforts.

Marijuana Use Impacts Midlife Cardiovascular Events in HIV-Infected Men

Marijuana use is prevalent among persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), but its long-term effects on HIV disease progression and comorbidities are unknown.

Comprehensive Ryan White Assistance and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Clinical Outcomes: Retention in Care and Viral Suppression in a Medicaid Nonexpansion State

Knowledge gaps remain about how the Ryan White human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS Program (RW) contributes to health outcomes. We examined the association between different RW service classes and retention in care (RiC) or viral suppression (VS).

Cerebral Abscess Associated With Odontogenic Bacteremias, Hypoxemia, and Iron Loading in Immunocompetent Patients With Right-to-Left Shunting Through Pulmonary Arteriovenous Malformations

Cerebral abscess is a recognized complication of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) that allow systemic venous blood to bypass the pulmonary capillary bed through anatomic right-to-left shunts. Broader implications and mechanisms remain poorly explored.

Evaluating the Clinical Burden and Mortality Attributable to Antibiotic Resistance: The Disparity of Empirical Data and Simple Model Estimations

Given the proliferation of cataclysmic predictions about antibiotic resistance, cases of which are estimated to amount to 12500 per year in France, we herein decided to compare the empirical clinical microbiology data from our institution with estimates and predictions from 10 major international scientific articles and reports. The analysis of 7 years of antibiotic resistance...

Antiviral Activity, Safety, and Exposure–Response Relationships of GSK3532795, a Second-Generation Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Maturation Inhibitor, Administered as Monotherapy or in Combination With Atazanavir With or Without Ritonavir in a Phase 2a Randomized, Dose-Ranging, Controlled Trial (AI468002)

GSK3532795 is a second-generation human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) maturation inhibitor that targets HIV-1 Gag, inhibiting the final protease cleavage between capsid protein p24 and spacer protein-1, producing immature, noninfectious virions.

Cytomegalovirus Urinary Shedding in HIV-infected Pregnant Women and Congenital Cytomegalovirus Infection

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) urinary shedding in pregnant women infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was evaluated to determine whether it poses an increased risk for congenital CMV infection (cCMV).

Preliminary Epidemiologic Assessment of Human Infections With Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N6) Virus, China

Since 2014, 17 human cases of infection with the newly emerged highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N6) virus have been identified in China to date. The epidemiologic characteristics of laboratory-confirmed A(H5N6) cases were compared to A(H5N1) and A(H7N9) cases in mainland China.

Errata

Adjunctive Corticosteroid Therapy in the Treatment of Coccidioidal Meningitis

Coccidioidal meningitis (CM) has high morbidity, and adjunctive measures to improve outcomes are needed. Using an established multicenter retrospective cohort study of CM (N = 221), we found that patients receiving adjunctive corticosteroids had a significant reduction in secondary cerebrovascular events (P = .0049). Those with CM-associated cerebrovascular events (8%) may...

Childhood Deaths Attributable to Invasive Pneumococcal Disease in England and Wales, 2006–2014

Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) are highly effective in preventing invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), but deaths due to IPD still occur. We aimed to describe children who died of IPD since PCV introduction in England and Wales.

Prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Hepatitis C Virus, and Hepatitis B Virus Among Homeless and Nonhomeless United States Veterans

Veterans are disproportionately affected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and hepatitis B virus (HBV). Homeless veterans are at particularly high risk for HIV, HCV, and HBV due to a variety of overlapping risk factors, including high rates of mental health disorders and substance use disorders. The prevalence of HIV, HCV, and HBV among homeless...