Environmental Sciences Europe

https://link.springer.com/journal/12302

List of Papers (Total 554)

How to increase the potential policy impact of environmental science research

This article highlights eight common issues that limit the policy impact of environmental science research. The article also discusses what environmental scientists can do to resolve these issues, including (1) optimising the directness of their study so that it examines similar processes/populations/environments/ecosystems to that of policy interest; (2) using the most powerful...

The value of zebrafish as an integrative model in effect-directed analysis - a review

Bioassays play a central role in effect-directed analysis (EDA), and their selection and application have to consider rather specific aspects of this approach. Meanwhile, bioassays with zebrafish, an established model organism in different research areas, are increasingly being utilized in EDA. Aiming to contribute for the optimal application of zebrafish bioassays in EDA, this...

The European technical report on aquatic effect-based monitoring tools under the water framework directive

The Water Framework Directive (WFD), 2000/60/EC, requires an integrated approach to the monitoring and assessment of the quality of surface water bodies. The chemical status assessment is based on compliance with legally binding Environmental Quality Standards (EQSs) for selected chemical pollutants (priority substances) of EU-wide concern. In the context of the mandate for the...

No scientific consensus on GMO safety

A broad community of independent scientific researchers and scholars challenges recent claims of a consensus over the safety of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). In the following joint statement, the claimed consensus is shown to be an artificial construct that has been falsely perpetuated through diverse fora. Irrespective of contradictory evidence in the refereed...

Naturally toxic: natural substances used in personal care products

Background Nature offers an incredible diversity of chemical compounds that boast a wide array of physiological effects. Many natural substances are employed in personal care products. Which of these natural substances are hazardous ingredients? How do European legal instruments regulate natural substances with toxic effects? Results 1,358 natural substances appear in the...

Aerobic treatment of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in landfill leachate

Background Pharmaceuticals used in human medical care are not completely eliminated in the human body and can enter the municipal sewage sludge system and leachate water from landfill both as the parent compound and as their biologically active metabolites. The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) have a large potential for unwanted effects on nontarget organisms in...

Bioaccumulation in aquatic systems: methodological approaches, monitoring and assessment

Bioaccumulation, the accumulation of a chemical in an organism relative to its level in the ambient medium, is of major environmental concern. Thus, monitoring chemical concentrations in biota are widely and increasingly used for assessing the chemical status of aquatic ecosystems. In this paper, various scientific and regulatory aspects of bioaccumulation in aquatic systems and...

The necessity of disinfected toilet brushes - information policy of companies on disinfectants in private homes

BackgroundNico Stehr, a German sociologist, presumes in his theory ‘Moralisation of the market’ that companies are willing to accept financial costs that result from moral considerations and put the interests of society over their own. It was examined whether this applies to companies that sell disinfectants to private users. It was assumed that in this case, companies would...

A multi-disciplinarily designed mesocosm to address the complex flow-sediment-ecology tripartite relationship on the microscale

Background The stabilization of fine sediments via biofilms (‘biostabilization’) has various economic and ecological implications but is presently unaddressed within lotic waters. To investigate natural biofilm growth and functionality in freshwater sediments under controlled boundary conditions, a unique mesocosm was constructed that combines established know-how from...

Industrial sludge containing pharmaceutical residues and explosives alters inherent toxic properties when co-digested with oat and post-treated in reed beds

Background Methane production as biofuels is a fast and strong growing technique for renewable energy. Substrates like waste (e.g. food, sludge from waste water treatment plants (WWTP), industrial wastes) can be used as a suitable resource for methane gas production, but in some cases, with elevated toxicity in the digestion residue. Former investigations have shown that co...

Potential water-related environmental risks of hydraulic fracturing employed in exploration and exploitation of unconventional natural gas reservoirs in Germany

Background The application of hydraulic fracturing during exploration and exploitation of unconventional natural gas reservoirs is currently under intense public discussion. On behalf of the German Federal Environment Agency we have investigated the potential water-related environmental risks for human health and the environment that could be caused by employing hydraulic...

Microinjection into zebrafish embryos (Danio rerio) - a useful tool in aquatic toxicity testing?

Background Microinjection was tested as a potentially powerful tool to introduce natural and anthropogenic pollutants directly into fish eggs to determine their toxicological impact on fish. With this technique, parental transfer of lipophilic contaminants may be mimicked. Here, we investigated the applicability of pollutant injection into the yolk of early zebrafish (Danio rerio...

Hypothesizing if responses to climate change affect herbicide exposure risk for amphibians

Pesticide use is well known to be detrimental for maintaining biodiversity in the agricultural landscape. Amphibians are especially affected by these agrochemicals. In particular, these animals’ high sensitivity was demonstrated for glyphosate-based herbicides which are dominating the world market today. Pesticide impacts are influenced by several co-stressors, and we for the...

Munitions and explosives of concern: international governance and applications for the United States

A combination of 20th century warfare alongside the storage of and frequent testing of munitions by various national armed forces has contributed to a legacy of unexploded ordnance, munitions, and explosives of concern (MEC). The presence of such latent munitions has potentially debilitating or even fatal effects upon a generally unsuspecting stakeholders where communities may be...

Maize pollen deposition in relation to distance from the nearest pollen source under common cultivation - results of 10 years of monitoring (2001 to 2010)

Background Information on pollen dispersal is essential for the risk assessment and management of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) such as Bt maize. We analyzed data on maize pollen deposition at 216 sites in Germany, Switzerland, and Belgium from 2001 to 2010. All data were collected using the same standardized sampling method. The distances between sampling site and the...

Evaluation of evidence that the organophosphorus insecticide chlorpyrifos is a potential persistent organic pollutant (POP) or persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic (PBT)

A number of chemicals, including several organochlorine pesticides, have been identified as persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Here, the properties of chlorpyrifos (CPY; CAS No. 2921-88-2) and its active metabolite, chlorpyrifos oxon (CPYO; CAS No. 5598-15-2), are assessed relative to criteria for classification of compounds as persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic substances...

Laboratory leaching tests on treated wood according to different harmonised test procedures

Background Laboratory leaching tests on treated wood were performed during a European robustness study in the framework of the validation of a tank leaching test procedure that has been proposed for construction products in order to determine the potential release of dangerous substances which can be transferred to soil and groundwater. The release of substances has to be...

Contaminant levels in the European eel (Anguilla anguilla) in North Rhine-Westphalian rivers

BackgroundPopulations of the European eel (Anguilla anguilla) are declining rapidly and are now considered below safe biological limits. High pollution levels are one of the possible reasons for this decline. Contaminant levels are also of concern with regard to human consumption. This study examined the contamination levels of eels from the North Rhine-Westphalian catchment area...

The potential benefits and limitations of different test procedures to determine the effects of Ag nanomaterials and AgNO3 on microbial nitrogen transformation in soil

Background The procedure described in The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) test guideline (TG) 216 is used to assess the effects of chemicals on microbial nitrogen transformation in soil, and the results are considered in regulatory risk assessments. We investigated the suitability of this method to characterize the effects of two silver nanomaterials...

Spatial patterns and temporal trends of heavy metal concentrations in moss and surface soil specimens collected in Norway between 1990 and 2010

BackgroundThe aim of this investigation was to inquire whether the spatial patterns and temporal trends of heavy metal concentrations in moss and soil specimen monitored in two spatial dense networks covering Norway are correlated. To this end, data about concentrations of cadmium, mercury and lead in moss and soil specimens collected were compiled. The data were derived from...

Environmental impacts of nanomaterials: providing comprehensive information on exposure, transport and ecotoxicity - the project DaNa2.0

Background Assessing the impact of new technologies or newly developed substances on our environment is a challenge, even more so if the applied test methods - both toxicological and analytical - are often found to be inadequate and need amendments or even new developments as it is in the case of nanotechnology. This is illustrated by numerous publications in the field of nano...

Simulating the yields of bioenergy and food crops with the crop modeling software BioSTAR: the carbon-based growth engine and the BioSTAR ET0 method

Background With a growing production and use of agricultural substrates in biogas facilities, the competition between food and energy production, environmental issues, and sustainability goals has seen an increase in the last decade and poses a challenge to policy makers. Statistical yield data has a low spatial resolution and only covers standard crops and makes no statement in...

How to consider engineered nanomaterials in major accident regulations?

Major accident regulations aim at protecting the population and the environment from possible accidental releases of chemicals. To achieve this goal, the regulations need to be reassessed in light of the development of new technologies. A currently rapidly growing new technology is nanotechnology, and engineered nanomaterials (ENM) are already produced and used in commercial...