Lipid droplets in human milk have a mode diameter of ∼4 μm and are surrounded by a native phospholipid-rich membrane. Current infant milk formulas (IMFs) contain small lipid droplets (mode diameter ∼0.5 μm) primarily coated by proteins. A concept IMF was developed mimicking more closely the structure and composition of human milk lipid droplets.
A higher protein intake is suggested to preserve muscle mass during aging and may therefore reduce the risk of sarcopenia.
The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved a qualified health claim for tree nuts and reduction of cardiovascular disease. However, cashews are excluded from that claim due to their content of saturated fats, which is predominantly stearic acid. Because stearic acid is neutral with respect to blood lipids, several studies have been conducted to test the effect of cashew...
The governments of the United States and Canada have jointly undertaken the development of the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) since the mid-1990s. The Federal DRI committees from each country work collaboratively to identify DRI needs, prioritize nutrient reviews, advance work to resolve methodological issues that is necessary for new reviews, and sponsor DRI-related committees...
Stress fracture risk is elevated during initial military training (IMT), particularly in lower-extremity bones such as the tibia. Although the etiology of stress fractures is multifactorial, lower bone strength increases risk.
Both excessive sodium intake and obesity are risk factors for hypertension and cardiovascular disease. The association between sodium intake and obesity is unclear, with few studies assessing sodium intake using 24-h urine collection.
To date, Healthy Eating Index 2015 (HEI-2015) scores have not been published in the peer-reviewed literature for nationally representative samples of American children.
Higher circulating antioxidant concentrations are associated with a lower risk of late-onset Alzheimer disease (AD) in observational studies, suggesting that diet-sourced antioxidants may be modifiable targets for reducing disease risk. However, observational evidence is prone to substantial biases that limit causal inference, including residual confounding and reverse causation.
The Government of Canada and the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada both recommend a daily multivitamin supplement containing 400 µg folic acid (FA) for the primary prevention of neural tube defects among low-risk women from before conception and throughout lactation. Prenatal supplements marketed and prescribed in Canada typically exceed the recommended dose...
An inverse association between childhood body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2) and pubertal timing is well established for girls. Among boys, studies are scarce and the results inconclusive.
Flavanols are an important class of food bioactives that can improve vascular function even in healthy subjects. Cocoa flavanols (CFs) are composed principally of the monomer (−)-epicatechin (∼20%), with a degree of polymerisation (DP) of 1 (DP1), and oligomeric procyanidins (∼80%, DP2–10).
High-oleic (HO) seed oils are being introduced as replacements for trans fatty acid (TFA)–containing fats and oils. Negative health effects associated with TFAs led to their removal from the US Generally Recognized As Safe list. HO oils formulated for use in food production may result in changes in fatty acid intake at population levels.
24-h urine collections are the suggested method to measure daily urinary potassium excretion (uK) but are costly and burdensome to implement.
Dietary fiber (DF) comprises a wide range of naturally occurring and modified materials with substantial variations in physical and chemical properties and potential physiologic effects. Although nutrition studies testing the effects of DF usually provide extensive detail on the physiologic responses, many still fail to adequately report the type and properties of the DF itself...
Systematic analysis of dietary protein intake may identify demographic groups within the American population that are not meeting the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs).
The 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) recommend nutrient needs be met by increasing fruit, vegetable, and whole-grain intake with the use of low-fat or fat-free dairy products and by reducing sodium, solid fats, and added sugars. However, the DGA, as a dietary pattern, have not been tested in an intervention trial.
Weight loss in obese individuals aims to reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes by improving glycemic control. Yet, significant intersubject variability is observed and the outcomes remain poorly predictable.
The US CDC and the Institute of Medicine recommend that women capable of becoming pregnant consume ≥400 µg synthetic folic acid/d to prevent neural tube defects (NTDs). The United States has 3 sources of folic acid: fortified enriched cereal grain products (ECGPs), fortified ready-to-eat (RTE) cereals, and dietary supplements.
Diet is an important determinant of health, and food purchasing is a key antecedent to consumption.
A detailed description of anthropometric and physiologic characteristics of persons in different diet groups is lacking.
Bed rest studies document that a lower dietary acid load is associated with lower bone resorption.
Sugar-sweetened beverages and added sugars (monosaccharides and disaccharides) in the diet are associated with obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, which are all risk factors for decline in physical function among older adults.
Previous research indicates that patients with type 2 diabetes are at higher risk of becoming frail. Emerging evidence also indicates that the Mediterranean diet may prevent frailty in the older population.
Individuals with impaired fat taste (FT) sensitivity have reduced satiety responses after consuming fatty foods, leading to increased dietary fat intake. Habitual consumption of dietary fat may modulate sensitivity to FT, with high consumption decreasing sensitivity [increasing fatty acid taste threshold (FATT)] and low consumption increasing sensitivity (decreasing FATT...