Journal of Neuropathology & Experimental Neurology

https://academic.oup.com/jnen

List of Papers (Total 2,620)

Morin Stain Detects Aluminum-Containing Macrophages in Macrophagic Myofasciitis and Vaccination Granuloma With High Sensitivity and Specificity

Macrophagic myofasciitis (MMF) is an inflammatory condition associated with the intramuscular (i.m.) injection of aluminum adjuvant-containing vaccines. It is clinically characterized by myalgia, weakness, and chronic fatigue and histologically by aggregates of cohesive macrophages with abundant basophilic, periodic acid-Schiff (PAS)-positive, diastase-resistant granules that...

Collagenosis of the Deep Medullary Veins: An Underrecognized Pathologic Correlate of White Matter Hyperintensities and Periventricular Infarction?

White matter hyperintensities (WMH) are prevalent. Although arteriolar disease has been implicated in their pathogenesis, venous pathology warrants consideration. We investigated relationships of WMH with histologic venous, arteriolar and white matter abnormalities and correlated findings with premortem neuroimaging. Three regions of periventricular white matter were sampled from...

Evaluating the Patterns of Aging-Related Tau Astrogliopathy Unravels Novel Insights Into Brain Aging and Neurodegenerative Diseases

The term "aging-related tau astrogliopathy" (ARTAG) describes pathological accumulation of abnormally phosphorylated tau protein in astrocytes. We evaluated the correlates of ARTAG types (i.e., subpial, subependymal, white and gray matter, and perivascular) in different neuroanatomical regions. Clinical, neuropathological, and genetic (eg, APOE ε4 allele, MAPT H1/H2 haplotype...

Cellular Senescence in Mouse Hippocampus After Irradiation and the Role of p53 and p21

Diverse stress signals including irradiation may trigger cellular senescence. We asked whether irradiation induced senescence in mouse hippocampus, and whether p53 or p21 played a role in this response. Following whole-brain irradiation, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) arrays for senescence-associated genes showed increased expression of CDKN1A (p21) and CDKN2A (p19ARF) in mouse...

The Significance of Internode Length for Saltatory Conduction: Looking Back at the Age of 90

The development of peripheral nerve fibers involves interdependence between the timing of Schwann cell recruitment during myelination and elongation of the nerve. This adjusts the number and the length of internodes to the length of the fiber. Saltatory conduction in longer nerves involves longer saltations; this makes internode length the factor that determines conduction...

The Molecular and Morphologic Structures That Make Saltatory Conduction Possible in Peripheral Nerve

Saltatory conduction is the process by which action potentials are rapidly and efficiently propagated along myelinated axons. In the peripheral nervous system, saltatory conduction is made possible by a series of morphologically and molecularly distinct subdomains in both axons and their associated myelinating Schwann cells. This review briefly summarizes current knowledge on the...

miRNA Regulation in Gliomas: Usual Suspects in Glial Tumorigenesis and Evolving Clinical Applications

In recent years, an increasing role for noncoding small RNAs (miRNA) has been uncovered in carcinogenesis. These oligonucleotides can promote degradation and/or inhibit translation of key mRNAs. Recent studies have also highlighted a possible role for miRNAs in adult and pediatric brain tumors, including high- and low-grade gliomas, medulloblastoma, ependymoma, and neoplasms...

Regional Overlap of Pathologies in Lewy Body Disorders

Lewy body disorders (LBD) are common neurodegenerative diseases characterized by the presence of aggregated α-synuclein in Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites in the central and peripheral nervous systems. The brains of patients with LBD often display other comorbid pathologies, i.e. insoluble tau, β-amyloid aggregates, TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) deposits, and argyrophilic...

Retrospective Analysis of Molecular and Immunohistochemical Characterization of 381 Primary Brain Tumors

The classification of brain tumors has traditionally depended on microscopic examination of hematoxylin and eosin–stained tissue sections. The increased understanding of clinically relevant genetic alterations has led to the incorporation of molecular signatures as part of the diagnosis of brain malignancies. Advances in sequencing technologies have facilitated the use of next...

Methylmalonate Induces Inflammatory and Apoptotic Potential: A Link to Glial Activation and Neurological Dysfunction

Methylmalonic acid (MMA) accumulates in tissues in methylmalonic acidemia, a heterogeneous group of inherited childhood diseases characterized by neurological dysfunction, oxidative stress and neuroinflammation; it is associated with degeneration of striatal neurons and cerebral cortical atrophy. It is presently unknown, however, whether transient exposure to MMA in the neonatal...

Erratum

Regional Gene Expression of Inflammation and Oxidative Stress Responses Does Not Predict Neurodegeneration in Aging

Brain aging is accompanied by increased oxidative stress and what has been termed “neuroinflammation,” which might contribute to age-related neurodegenerative diseases. We analyzed expression in the transcription of innate inflammatory response genes in eleven representative regions including frontal, parietal, inferior temporal, cingulate, occipital, entorhinal cortex, caudate...

Genomic Alterations of Adamantinomatous and Papillary Craniopharyngioma

Craniopharyngiomas are rare histologically benign but clinically challenging neoplasms. To obtain further information on the molecular genetics and biology of craniopharyngiomas, we analyzed a cohort of 121 adamantinomatous and 16 papillary craniopharyngiomas (ACP, PCP). We extracted DNA from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue and determined mutational status of CTNNB1, BRAF...

Friedreich Ataxia: Hypoplasia of Spinal Cord and Dorsal Root Ganglia

After Friedreich’s description in 1877, depletion of myelinated fibers in the dorsal columns, dorsal spinocerebellar and lateral corticospinal tracts, and neuronal loss in the dorsal nuclei of Clarke columns were considered unique and essential neuropathological features of Friedreich ataxia (FA). Lack of large neurons in dorsal root ganglia (DRG), thinning of dorsal roots (DR...

Association of Neuropathological Markers in the Parietal Cortex With Antemortem Cognitive Function in Persons With Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer Disease

The associations between cognitive function and neuropathological markers in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer disease (AD) remain only partly defined. We investigated relationships between antemortem global cognitive scores and β-amyloid (Aβ), tau, TDP-43, synaptic proteins and other key AD neuropathological markers assessed by biochemical approaches in...

A Quantitative Analysis of Brain Soluble Tau and the Tau Secretion Factor

Neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) represent products of insoluble tau protein in the brains of patients with Alzheimer disease (AD). The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) tau level is a biomarker in AD diagnosis. The soluble portion of tau protein in brain parenchyma is presumably the source for CSF tau but this has not previously been quantified. We measured CSF tau and soluble brain tau...

DNA Methylation Profiles of Selected Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines in Alzheimer Disease

By means of functional genomics analysis, we recently described the mRNA expression profiles of various genes involved in the neuroinflammatory response in the brains of subjects with late-onset Alzheimer Disease (LOAD). Some of these genes, namely interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6, showed distinct expression profiles with peak expression during the first stages of the disease and...

Native Oligodendrocytes in Astrocytomas Might Inhibit Tumor Proliferation by WIF1 Expression

Malignant astrocytoma remains incurable and rapidly fatal despite multimodal therapy. In particular, accelerated tumor cell heterogeneity often overcomes therapeutic effects of molecular protein targeting. This study aimed at identifying a gene with therapeutic potential that was consistently downregulated with astrocytoma progression. Analysis of the “Rembrandt” gene expression...