Nucleic Acids Research

https://academic.oup.com/nar

List of Papers (Total 11,429)

Biclustering analysis of transcriptome big data identifies condition-specific microRNA targets

We present a novel approach to identify human microRNA (miRNA) regulatory modules (mRNA targets and relevant cell conditions) by biclustering a large collection of mRNA fold-change data for sequence-specific targets. Bicluster targets were assessed using validated messenger RNA (mRNA) targets and exhibited on an average 17.0% (median 19.4%) improved gain in certainty (sensitivity...

Functional protein representations from biological networks enable diverse cross-species inference

Transferring knowledge between species is key for many biological applications, but is complicated by divergent and convergent evolution. Many current approaches for this problem leverage sequence and interaction network data to transfer knowledge across species, exemplified by network alignment methods. While these techniques do well, they are limited in scope, creating metrics...

Translation termination depends on the sequential ribosomal entry of eRF1 and eRF3

Translation termination requires eRF1 and eRF3 for polypeptide- and tRNA-release on stop codons. Additionally, Dbp5/DDX19 and Rli1/ABCE1 are required; however, their function in this process is currently unknown. Using a combination of in vivo and in vitro experiments, we show that they regulate a stepwise assembly of the termination complex. Rli1 and eRF3-GDP associate with the...

Differential role for phosphorylation in alternative polyadenylation function versus nuclear import of SR-like protein CPSF6

Cleavage factor I mammalian (CFIm) complex, composed of cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor 5 (CPSF5) and serine/arginine-like protein CPSF6, regulates alternative polyadenylation (APA). Loss of CFIm function results in proximal polyadenylation site usage, shortening mRNA 3′ untranslated regions (UTRs). Although CPSF6 plays additional roles in human disease, its...

Single-cell transcriptome analysis of Physcomitrella leaf cells during reprogramming using microcapillary manipulation

Next-generation sequencing technologies have made it possible to carry out transcriptome analysis at the single-cell level. Single-cell RNA-sequencing (scRNA-seq) data provide insights into cellular dynamics, including intercellular heterogeneity as well as inter- and intra-cellular fluctuations in gene expression that cannot be studied using populations of cells. The utilization...

Epigenetic regulation of REX1 expression and chromatin binding specificity by HMGNs

HMGN proteins localize to chromatin regulatory sites and modulate the cell-type specific transcription profile; however, the molecular mechanism whereby these ubiquitous nucleosome binding proteins affect gene expression is not fully understood. Here, we show that HMGNs regulate the expression of Rex1, one of the most highly transcribed genes in mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs...

SuperCT: a supervised-learning framework for enhanced characterization of single-cell transcriptomic profiles

Characterization of individual cell types is fundamental to the study of multicellular samples. Single-cell RNAseq techniques, which allow high-throughput expression profiling of individual cells, have significantly advanced our ability of this task. Currently, most of the scRNA-seq data analyses are commenced with unsupervised clustering. Clusters are often assigned to different...

Using long-read sequencing to detect imprinted DNA methylation

Systematic variation in the methylation of cytosines at CpG sites plays a critical role in early development of humans and other mammals. Of particular interest are regions of differential methylation between parental alleles, as these often dictate monoallelic gene expression, resulting in parent of origin specific control of the embryonic transcriptome and subsequent...

CPPred: coding potential prediction based on the global description of RNA sequence

The rapid and accurate approach to distinguish between coding RNAs and ncRNAs has been playing a critical role in analyzing thousands of novel transcripts, which have been generated in recent years by next-generation sequencing technology. Previously developed methods CPAT, CPC2 and PLEK can distinguish coding RNAs and ncRNAs very well, but poorly distinguish between small coding...

Structural basis for RNA translocation by DEAH-box ATPases

DEAH-box adenosine triphosphatases (ATPases) play a crucial role in the spliceosome-mediated excision of pre-mRNA introns. Recent spliceosomal cryo-EM structures suggest that these proteins utilize translocation to apply forces on ssRNAs rather than direct RNA duplex unwinding to ensure global rearrangements. By solving the crystal structure of Prp22 in different adenosine...

IMP1 KH1 and KH2 domains create a structural platform with unique RNA recognition and re-modelling properties

IGF2 mRNA-binding protein 1 (IMP1) is a key regulator of messenger RNA (mRNA) metabolism and transport in organismal development and, in cancer, its mis-regulation is an important component of tumour metastasis. IMP1 function relies on the recognition of a diverse set of mRNA targets that is mediated by the combinatorial action of multiple RNA-binding domains. Here, we dissect...

The moonlighting RNA-binding activity of cytosolic serine hydroxymethyltransferase contributes to control compartmentalization of serine metabolism

Enzymes of intermediary metabolism are often reported to have moonlighting functions as RNA-binding proteins and have regulatory roles beyond their primary activities. Human serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT) is essential for the one-carbon metabolism, which sustains growth and proliferation in normal and tumour cells. Here, we characterize the RNA-binding function of...

LncRNA PCAT1 activates AKT and NF-κB signaling in castration-resistant prostate cancer by regulating the PHLPP/FKBP51/IKKα complex

In PTEN-deficient prostate cancers, AKT signaling may be activated upon suppression of androgen receptor signaling. Activation of AKT as well as NF-κB signaling involves a key regulatory protein complex containing PHLPP, FKBP51 and IKKα. Here, we report a critical role of lncRNA PCAT1 in regulating the PHLPP/FKBP51/IKKα complex and progression of castration-resistant prostate...

Differences in the path to exit the ribosome across the three domains of life

The ribosome exit tunnel is an important structure involved in the regulation of translation and other essential functions such as protein folding. By comparing 20 recently obtained cryo-EM and X-ray crystallography structures of the ribosome from all three domains of life, we here characterize the key similarities and differences of the tunnel across species. We first show that...

Enhanced Cas12a editing in mammalian cells and zebrafish

Type V CRISPR–Cas12a systems provide an alternate nuclease platform to Cas9, with potential advantages for specific genome editing applications. Here we describe improvements to the Cas12a system that facilitate efficient targeted mutagenesis in mammalian cells and zebrafish embryos. We show that engineered variants of Cas12a with two different nuclear localization sequences (NLS...

Deoxyuridine in DNA has an inhibitory and promutagenic effect on RNA transcription by diverse RNA polymerases

dUTP is a close structural congener of dTTP and can be readily incorporated into DNA opposite to adenine during DNA replication leading to non-mutagenic dU/A base pairs (‘uracilation’). We find that dU/A pairs located within DNA transcriptional templates optimized for either T7 RNA polymerase (T7 RNAP) or human RNA polymerase II (pol II) have inhibitory and mutagenic effects on...

Recycling of single-stranded DNA-binding protein by the bacterial replisome

Single-stranded DNA-binding proteins (SSBs) support DNA replication by protecting single-stranded DNA from nucleolytic attack, preventing intra-strand pairing events and playing many other regulatory roles within the replisome. Recent developments in single-molecule approaches have led to a revised picture of the replisome that is much more complex in how it retains or recycles...

Depletion of the RNA binding protein HNRNPD impairs homologous recombination by inhibiting DNA-end resection and inducing R-loop accumulation

DNA double strand break (DSB) repair through homologous recombination (HR) is crucial to maintain genome stability. DSB resection generates a single strand DNA intermediate, which is crucial for the HR process. We used a synthetic DNA structure, mimicking a resection intermediate, as a bait to identify proteins involved in this process. Among these, LC/MS analysis identified the...

The Nup84 complex coordinates the DNA damage response to warrant genome integrity

DNA lesions interfere with cellular processes such as transcription and replication and need to be adequately resolved to warrant genome integrity. Beyond their primary role in molecule transport, nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) function in other processes such as transcription, nuclear organization and DNA double strand break (DSB) repair. Here we found that the removal of UV...

PrimPol is required for the maintenance of efficient nuclear and mitochondrial DNA replication in human cells

Eukaryotic Primase-Polymerase (PrimPol) is an enzyme that maintains efficient DNA duplication by repriming replication restart downstream of replicase stalling lesions and structures. To elucidate the cellular requirements for PrimPol in human cells, we generated PrimPol-deleted cell lines and show that it plays key roles in maintaining active replication in both the nucleus and...

FACT subunit Spt16 controls UVSSA recruitment to lesion-stalled RNA Pol II and stimulates TC-NER

Transcription-coupled nucleotide excision repair (TC-NER) is a dedicated DNA repair pathway that removes transcription-blocking DNA lesions (TBLs). TC-NER is initiated by the recognition of lesion-stalled RNA Polymerase II by the joint action of the TC-NER factors Cockayne Syndrome protein A (CSA), Cockayne Syndrome protein B (CSB) and UV-Stimulated Scaffold Protein A (UVSSA...

The CDK7 inhibitor THZ1 alters RNA polymerase dynamics at the 5′ and 3′ ends of genes

The t(8;21) is one of the most frequent chromosomal translocations associated with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We found that t(8;21) AML were extremely sensitive to THZ1, which triggered apoptosis after only 4 h. We used precision nuclear run-on transcription sequencing (PROseq) to define the global effects of THZ1 and other CDK inhibitors on RNA polymerase II dynamics...

A conserved genetic interaction between Spt6 and Set2 regulates H3K36 methylation

The transcription elongation factor Spt6 and the H3K36 methyltransferase Set2 are both required for H3K36 methylation and transcriptional fidelity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, the nature of the requirement for Spt6 has remained elusive. By selecting for suppressors of a transcriptional defect in an spt6 mutant, we have isolated several highly clustered, dominant SET2...

Multiple covalent fluorescence labeling of eukaryotic mRNA at the poly(A) tail enhances translation and can be performed in living cells

Post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression occurs by multiple mechanisms, including subcellular localization of mRNA and alteration of the poly(A) tail length. These mechanisms play crucial roles in the dynamics of cell polarization and embryonic development. Furthermore, mRNAs are emerging therapeutics and chemical alterations to increase their translational efficiency...