European Journal of Forest Research

http://link.springer.com/journal/10342

List of Papers (Total 558)

Water limitation can negate the effect of higher temperatures on forest carbon sequestration

Climate change will bring about a consistent increase in temperatures. Annual precipitation rates are also expected to increase in boreal countries, but the seasonal distribution will be uneven, and several areas in the boreal zone will experience wetter winters and drier summers. This study uses the dynamic forest ecosystem model ForSAFE to estimate the combined effect of...

Efficient application of a browsing repellent: Can associational effects within and between plants be exploited?

Browsing can reduce forest productivity, particularly when the apical shoots of trees are damaged. Repellents are used widely to reduce browsing, but application is costly. To improve efficiency, it may be possible to take advantage of associational plant refuge effects, requiring repellents to be applied only to some trees or parts of trees, or reapplied less frequently. Using...

Shifting from even-aged management to less intensive forestry in varying proportions of forest land in Finland: impacts on carbon storage, harvest removals, and harvesting costs

Many studies have reported increased multi-functionality and financial profits due to a shift from even- to uneven-aged forest management. However, little is known (from long-term experiences or predictions) how alternative management systems could affect national-scale wood production and carbon storage, if adopted over very large areas. We analysed these effects using an area...

Maintenance of long-term experiments for unique insights into forest growth dynamics and trends: review and perspectives

In this review, the unique features and facts of long-term experiments are presented. Long-term experimental plots provide information of forest stand dynamics which cannot be derived from forest inventories or small temporary plots. Most comprise unthinned plots which represent the site specific maximum stand density as an unambiguous reference. By measuring the remaining as...

Influence of size and shape of forest inventory units on the layout of harvest blocks in numerical forest planning

The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of using alternative types of forest inventory units (FIUs) in multi-objective forest planning. The research was carried out in a Mediterranean forest area in central Spain. The study area was divided, alternatively, into pixels (square cells) and segments of two different sizes (small and large), which represented the tested FIU...

Forest as a place for recreation but also the source of allergenic plant pollen: to come or avoid?

For many years, we have observed a significant rise in urban population, the spatial development of cities, and an increase in urbanized areas. More and more people feel the need to have contact with nature. The interest in forest recreation is growing, though the forest is a serious source of allergenic plant pollen. The aim of the present study was to compare two forest types...

Age and weather effects on between and within ring variations of number, width and coarseness of tracheids and radial growth of young Norway spruce

Annual growth, fibre and wood properties of Norway spruce are all under strong influence from genetics, age and weather. They change dynamically, particularly at young ages. Most genetic research and tree improvement programs are based on data from this most dynamic phase of the life of trees, affected by differences in weather among sites and years. In the work presented...

Deadwood volume in strictly protected, natural, and primeval forests in Poland

Standing and downed deadwood at different stages of decay provides a crucial habitat for a wide range of organisms. It is particularly abundant in unmanaged forests, such as strictly protected areas of national parks and nature reserves. The present work used the available data for such sites in Poland, analyzing a total of 113 studies concerning 79 sites to determine the causes...

Optimal timing of early genetic selection for sawn timber traits in Picea abies

In breeding Norway spruce, selection for improved growth and survival is performed at age 10–15 years in order to optimize genetic gain per year. We investigated whether a selection based on wood traits such as density and grain angle, measured under bark in the field at the same age would be informative enough with respect to structural quality traits of sawn boards. To achieve...

Early selection for resistance to Heterobasidion parviporum in Norway spruce is not likely to adversely affect growth and wood quality traits in late-age performance

Infections with Heterobasidion parviporum devalue the Norway spruce timber as the decayed wood does not meet the necessary quality requirements for sawing. To evaluate the incorporation of disease resistance in the Norway spruce breeding strategy, an inoculation experiment with H. parviporum on 2-year-old progenies of 466 open-pollinated families was conducted under greenhouse...

Combining canopy height and tree species map information for large-scale timber volume estimations under strong heterogeneity of auxiliary data and variable sample plot sizes

A timber volume regression model applicable to the state and communal forest area of the federal German state of Rhineland-Palatinate is identified using a combination of airborne laser scanning (ALS)-derived metrics and information from a satellite-based tree species classification map available on the federal state level. As is common in many forest inventory datasets, strong...

The geographic origin of old Douglas-fir stands growing in Central Europe

Since the nineteenth century, Douglas-fir seed sources have been widely used for establishment of forest stands outside its natural distribution range. In Europe, some of these old Douglas-fir stands are registered as seed stands and provide seed sources for nurseries, although it is unclear from which region in North America they originate. In recent years, the interest in...

Mean species cover: a harmonized indicator of shrub cover for forest inventories

Because shrub cover is related to many forest ecosystem functions, it is one of the most relevant variables for describing these communities. Nevertheless, a harmonized indicator of shrub cover for large-scale reporting is lacking. The aims of the study were threefold: to define a shrub indicator that can be used by European countries for harmonized shrub cover estimation using...

Species-specific spatial structure, species coexistence and mortality pattern in natural, uneven-aged Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.)-dominated forest

Complexity of uneven-aged forests results from the heterogeneity of their structure reflected among others by the spatial pattern of their components. Forest structure is usually modified by various processes operating at different scales and time. Structure and processes are not independent, and both are important drivers of forest dynamics. The impact of natural processes on...

Genetic diversity and adaptive traits of European versus American Douglas-fir seedlings

Due to its productivity and potential to adapt to the expected climate change, the Douglas-fir is one of the most important commercial non-native forest tree species in Europe. Currently, seeds from both non-native European and native American seed stands are used for plantations. In this study, we investigate European seed lots for their native origin (variety and potential...

Young conifer stands form a deer browsing refuge for an oak admixture: silvicultural implications for forest regeneration under herbivore pressure

There is little knowledge how ungulate pressure on forest regeneration may be mitigated by silvicultural methods. The knowledge is especially needed for artificially regenerated, deciduous tree species. We studied factors affecting browsing incidence by deer in the Pisz Forest District in Poland, an area where 10,000 ha of forest was damaged by a 2002 hurricane. In 2006, we...

Evaluating multifunctionality and adaptive capacity of mountain forest management alternatives under climate change in the Eastern Alps

Future provisioning of ecosystem services (ES) from mountain forests is uncertain due to potential impacts of climate change. For a case study catchment in the Eastern Alps in Austria we analysed how management and climate change may affect the provisioning of four ES (timber production, carbon sequestration, biodiversity and bird habitat quality, and protection against...

Effects of thermal-time artificial scarification on the germination dynamics of black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) seeds

The aim of this study was to determine the efficiency of methods for the artificial scarification of black locust seeds based on the influence of the air and liquid nitrogen temperatures. Three populations were selected for the analyses: a managed tree stand, a selected seed stand and a seed orchard. Samples of 200 seeds (4 × 50) were randomly selected. Before scarification, the...

The introduction of modern forest management and clear-cutting in Sweden: Ridö State Forest 1832–2014

The effects of clear-cutting and potential alternatives continue to be hot topics during discussions of forestry and nature conservation. This study presents forest data from Ridön, an island in Lake Mälaren in central Sweden, where forest management and clear-cutting have been applied for almost 200 years. The main objective of the study was to identify changes in forest...

Does tree-ring formation follow leaf phenology in Pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.)?

We monitored leaf phenology and xylogenesis of 12 Pedunculate oaks in northern Poland in 2014. We hypothesized that the individual trees, which differed in size, age and habitat (tree stand or gap), also diverged in terms of the seasonal patterns of leaf phenology and xylogenesis. The samples used for wood formation observations were collected most frequently during the early...

Species proportions by area in mixtures of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.)

Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) dominate many of the European forest stands. Also, mixtures of European beech and Scots pine more or less occur over all European countries, but have been scarcely investigated. The area occupied by each species is of high relevance, especially for growth evaluation and comparison of different species in...

Fuel consumption and exhaust emissions in the process of mechanized timber extraction and transport

The paper focuses on the determination of fuel consumption (CO2 emission) and exhaust emissions such as CO, HC, NOx, and PM in the process of timber extraction and transport. A complex assessment of fuel consumption and exhaust emissions was performed for the entire, fully mechanized supply chain including, tree felling, delimbing, and bucking with a harvester, timber extraction...

The susceptibility of Asian, European and North American Fraxinus species to the ash dieback pathogen Hymenoscyphus fraxineus reflects their phylogenetic history

In Europe, common ash (Fraxinus excelsior) is being decimated because of the invasive fungus Hymenoscyphus fraxineus. In its native range in Asia this ascomycete is considered a harmless leaf associate of F. mandshurica and F. chinensis subsp. rhynchophylla. Field observations from Europe suggest that there is species-specific variation in disease susceptibility among European...

Morphological and physiological responses to drought stress of European provenances of Scots pine

Increased frequency and intensity of drought episodes as a consequence of current and predicted climatic changes require an understanding of the intra-specific variability in structural and physiological characteristics of forest trees. Adaptive plasticity and genotypic variability are considered two of the main processes by which trees can either be selected or can acclimate to...