Water SA

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List of Papers (Total 181)

Assessment of a chlorine dioxide proprietary product for water and wastewater disinfection

Chlorine on its own is adequate for many, if not most, potable water pre-oxidation and disinfection systems at plants where the application is straightforward. Similarly, most wastewater plants can be disinfected by chlorine in one of its commer cially available forms. However, when more intense pre-oxidation is required or significant iron or manganese is present in a potable...

Monitoring drinking water quality in South Africa: Designing information systems for local needs

In South Africa, the management and monitoring of drinking water quality is governed by policies and regulations based on international standards. Water Service Authorities, which are either municipalities or district municipalities, are required to submit information regarding water quality and the management thereof regularly to the national Blue Drop System (BDS). Since 2009...

Quantification of water usage at a South African platinum processing plant

The mining industry utilises 3% of the total water withdrawn in South Africa and is one of the industries responsible for the deterioration of water quality in South Africa. Mine water requirements can be reduced with correct implementation and/ or improvement of current mine water management strategies. Any reduction in mine water requirements will reduce the demand on current...

Performance comparison of hydraulic and gravitation HybridICE filters in freeze desalination of mine waters

HybridICE is an emerging freeze desalination technology for treating complex mine wastewaters. The technology works on the principle that growing ice crystals reject impurities during freezing. The bottleneck in the freeze desalination processes may be the separation of ice from the ice slurry generated in the freeze engine. Two types of HybridICE filter have been developed to...

Application of the DIY carbon footprint calculator to a wastewater treatment works

The provision of water and wastewater treatment services exerts a huge operational cost on public financial resources. A substantial portion of the operational budget is made up of carbon-intensive energy costs. Energy is consumed in this sector in pumping, aeration, motor drives, administration, transportation and in the manufacture of chemicals such as polyelectrolyte, chlorine...

The potential utilisation of indigenous South African grasses for acid mine drainage remediation

Acid mine drainage (AMD) is a significant threat to the environment in South Africa and needs to be remedied. Although active treatment methods have been and are being implemented in industry, passive treatment systems involving bioremediation have the potential to be a more cost-effective and environmentally sustainable solution. Biological treatment of AMD involves the...

Mitigating the impact of swimming pools on domestic water demand

South Africa is a water-scarce country where the sustainable provision of water to its citizens is one of the most significant challenges faced. A recent study in Cape Town, South Africa, investigated the impact of residential swimming pools on household water demand and found that, on average, the presence of a swimming pool increased water demand by 8.85 kℓ/ month or 37.36...

A cheap and simple passive sampler using silicone rubber for the analysis of surface water by gas chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry

Water pollution events may arise rapidly, requiring a methodology that is easy to implement, fast to deploy, and sufficiently sensitive to detect the trace presence of hazardous contaminants. A cheap and easy to use silicone rubber (polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)) miniature passive sampler is described. In order to test the methodology, pollutants were concentrated, in situ, from...

Effect of sodium adsorption ratio and electric conductivity of the applied water on infiltration in a sandy-loam soil

Infiltration measurements using a double-ring infiltrometer were conducted on a sandy-loam soil located in Saudi Arabia. The measurements were performed for an undisturbed soil. The effect of sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) and electric conductivity (EC) of the applied water on infiltration rate was examined. The infiltration rate at the initial time was high, in the order 305...

Development and assessment of rules to parameterise the ACRU model for design flood estimation

Design flood estimation (DFE) is essential in the planning and design of hydraulic structures. In South Africa, outdated methods are widely applied for DFE. In this paper the potential of a continuous simulation modelling (CSM) approach to DFE in South Africa, using the daily time-step ACRU agrohydrological model, is investigated. The paper focuses on the links and similarities...

Assessing the clogging and permeability of degrading packed bed reactors

In South Africa, the need for water treatment is increasing, especially in the mining sector. As active water treatment technologies are expensive, the mining sector has an increasing need for passive water treatment technology, with low maintenance and operating costs, yet efficient water treatment ability. Literature on passive water treatment suggests that these systems only...

Synthesis and characterisation of ultrafiltration membranes functionalised with C18 as a modifier for adsorption capabilities of polyaromatic hydrocarbons

The disposal of wastewater containing polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been observed to be a very costly process, hence mitigation for many industrial plants continues to be a challenge. The purpose of this study was to examine the potential use of C18 as a modifier in membrane technology; thus, C18 was incorporated into poly (vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) membranes. According...

Water use of selected grain legumes in response to varying irrigation regimes

Grain legumes have potential to contribute to food and nutritional security in water-scarce areas. Information on their yield, water use and water productivity (WP) would be useful for their promotion. The aim of the study was to make a comparative assessment of adaptation, yield, water use and WP of an African indigenous grain legume (bambara groundnut) and two major grain...

Assessing the energy and carbon footprints of exploiting and treating brackish groundwater in Cape Town

South Africa has been facing significant challenges in meeting demands in its water and energy sectors in recent years and planning for both sectors has mostly been done separately. The City of Cape Town has started to supplement its dwindling conventional freshwater supplies with groundwater, wastewater and seawater, in light of the drought that commenced in 2015. The Cape Flats...

Untreated wastewater as a source of carbapenem-resistant bacteria to the riverine ecosystem

Bacteriological pollution, especially that including clinically important bacteria, of the aquatic environment caused by anthropogenic pressure attracts much attention with regard to public health. Reports to date have not addressed the concentration of emerging carbapenem-resistant bacteria (CRB) in riverine ecosystems, and the source of this pollution is hard to track. We...

Performance evaluation and optimization studies of border irrigation system for wheat in the Indian Punjab

Surface irrigation methods are the most widely practiced worldwide for irrigation of row crops. The major problem with these methods is low irrigation efficiency, mainly due to poor design. In the Punjab, border irrigation is used to irrigate wheat crops grown over 90% of the cultivated area. The evaluation of existing border systems using a surface irrigation model showed that...

Mathematical modelling and analysis of the flocculation process in low retention time hydraulic flocculators

This article aims to advance the understanding of particle interactions in low retention time flocculators and proposes a new flocculation model that appropriately considers the influence of retention time in flocculation processes. This consideration is important for units with flocculation time lower than 1 min, as seen in helically coiled tube flocculators (HCTFs), whose...

A scenario-based multiple attribute decision-making approach for site selection of a wastewater treatment plant: Bahir Dar City (Ethiopia) case study

The challenge of selecting an appropriate wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) site is addressed in this study, using the case study of Bahir Dar City, Ethiopia. An innovative approach is proposed for selecting the WWTP site. Fifteen practically feasible alternatives were identified based on the geographical information system (GIS) based hydraulic design and considering the overall...

Mapping of water-related ecosystem services in the uMngeni catchment using a daily time-step hydrological model for prioritisation of ecological infrastructure investment - Part 1: Context and modelling approach

South Africa is a semi-arid country which frequently faces water shortages, and experienced a severe drought in the 2016 and 2017 rainfall seasons. Government is under pressure to continue to deliver clean water to the growing population at a high assurance of supply. Studies now show that the delivery of water may be sustained not only through built infrastructure such as dams...

Sensitivity analysis for water quality monitoring frequency in the application of a water quality index for the uMngeni River and its tributaries, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

Water quality indices are commonly used to provide summary information from water quality monitoring programmes to stakeholders. However, declining funding and changing mandates often result in reduced monitoring frequencies which could affect the accuracy of information provided. Thus, this study aimed to assess the effect of water sampling frequency on water quality index...

Challenges and opportunities for revitalising smallholder irrigation schemes in South Africa

South Africa is classified as a water-scarce country, and depends on agriculture for food production. The irrigation sector is the largest consumer of water in the country, accounting for about 62% of water utilisation, but also losing 30-40%. Given the threat of drought and climate change, efficient irrigation systems have become a necessity, especially in the smallholder...

Measuring and modelling evapotranspiration in a South African grassland: Comparison of two improved Penman-Monteith formulations

Accurately measuring evapotranspiration (ET) is important in the context of global atmospheric changes and for use with climate models. Direct ET measurement is costly to apply widely and local calibration and validation of ET models developed elsewhere improves confidence in ET derived from such models. This study sought to compare the performance of the Penman-Monteith-Leuning...

Exploring ways to increase public investments in agricultural water management and irrigation for improved agricultural productivity in Southern Africa

This paper explores ways to increase public investments in agricultural water management and irrigation for improved agricultural productivity in Southern Africa, with a specific focus on Malawi, Mozambique and Zambia. The analysis was based on a critical review of literature and assessment of the national agricultural investment plans and agricultural/water policies in the study...