Endocrinology

https://academic.oup.com/endo

List of Papers (Total 8,272)

Intestine-Specific Overexpression of LDLR Enhances Cholesterol Excretion and Induces Metabolic Changes in Male Mice

Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery is one of the most effective treatment options for severe obesity and related comorbidities, including hyperlipidemia, a well-established risk factor of cardiovascular diseases. Elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of RYGB may facilitate development of equally effective, but less invasive, treatments...

Quantitative Proteomics by SWATH-MS of Maternal Plasma Exosomes Determine Pathways Associated With Term and Preterm Birth

Exosomes are membrane-bound nanovesicles that transport molecular signals between cells. This study determined changes in maternal plasma exosome proteomics contents in term and preterm births. Maternal plasma (MP) samples were collected from group 1: term not in labor (TNIL, n = 13); group 2: term in labor (TL, n = 11); group 3: preterm premature rupture of membranes (pPROM, n...

Kisspeptin Stimulation of Prolactin Secretion Requires Kiss1 Receptor but Not in Tuberoinfundibular Dopaminergic Neurons

Kisspeptin has been shown to stimulate prolactin secretion. We investigated whether kisspeptin acts through the Kiss1 receptor (Kiss1r) to regulate dopamine and prolactin. Initially, we evaluated prolactin response in a Kiss1r-deficient mouse line, in which Kiss1r had been knocked into GnRH neurons (Kiss1r−/−R). Intracerebroventricular kisspeptin-10 (Kp-10) increased prolactin...

Epithelial Mutations in Endometriosis: Link to Ovarian Cancer

Epidemiologic and histopathologic associations between endometriosis and epithelial ovarian cancer have been reported; however, the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms are not well understood. A possible genetic link has been suggested in recent publications. Driver mutations in PIK3CA, KRAS, ARID1A, and other genes have been found in the epithelium of intrauterine...

Circulating Exosomal miRNA Profile During Term and Preterm Birth Pregnancies: A Longitudinal Study

Despite decades of research in the field of human reproduction, the mechanisms responsible for human parturition still remain elusive. The objective of this study was to describe the changes in the exosomal miRNA concentrations circulating in the maternal plasma between mothers delivering term and preterm neonates, across gestation using a longitudinal study design. This...

Shedding Perspective on Extracellular Vesicle Biology in Diabetes and Associated Metabolic Syndromes

The etiology of diabetes and associated metabolic derailments is a complex process that relies on crosstalk between metabolically active tissues. Dysregulation of secreted factors and metabolites from islets, adipose tissue, liver, and skeletal muscle contributes to the overall progression of diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are circulating...

Sex-Dimorphic and Sex Hormone–Dependent Role of Steroid Sulfatase in Adipose Inflammation and Energy Homeostasis

Steroid sulfatase (STS), a desulfating enzyme that converts steroid sulfates to hormonally active steroids, plays an important role in the homeostasis of sex hormones. STS is expressed in the adipose tissue of both male and female mice, but the role of STS in the development and function of adipose tissue remains largely unknown. In this report, we show that the adipose...

Olfactomedin 4 Deletion Improves Male Mouse Glucose Intolerance and Insulin Resistance Induced by a High-Fat Diet

Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) is essential for blood glucose homeostasis and is impaired in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Understanding the regulatory components of GSIS has clinical implications for diabetes treatment. In this study, we found that olfactomedin 4 (OLFM4) is endogenously expressed in pancreatic islet β cells and further investigated its potential roles...

Endothelial Insulin Receptor Restoration Rescues Vascular Function in Male Insulin Receptor Haploinsufficient Mice

Reduced systemic insulin signaling promotes endothelial dysfunction and diminished endogenous vascular repair. We investigated whether restoration of endothelial insulin receptor expression could rescue this phenotype. Insulin receptor knockout (IRKO) mice were crossed with mice expressing a human insulin receptor endothelial cell–specific overexpression (hIRECO) to produce IRKO...

Retinoid X Receptor Activation During Adipogenesis of Female Mesenchymal Stem Cells Programs a Dysfunctional Adipocyte

Early life exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) is an emerging risk factor for the development of obesity and diabetes later in life. We previously showed that prenatal exposure to the EDC tributyltin (TBT) results in increased adiposity in the offspring. These effects linger into adulthood and are propagated through successive generations. TBT activates two nuclear...

Nicotinamide Nucleotide Transhydrogenase as a Novel Treatment Target in Adrenocortical Carcinoma

Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is an aggressive malignancy with poor response to chemotherapy. In this study, we evaluated a potential new treatment target for ACC, focusing on the mitochondrial reduced form of NAD phosphate (NADPH) generator nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase (NNT). NNT has a central role within mitochondrial antioxidant pathways, protecting cells from...

Elucidating the Role of the Maternal Embryonic Leucine Zipper Kinase in Adrenocortical Carcinoma

Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is an aggressive cancer with a 5-year survival rate <35%. Mortality remains high due to lack of targeted therapies. Using bioinformatic analyses, we identified maternal embryonic leucine zipper kinase (MELK) as 4.1-fold overexpressed in ACC compared with normal adrenal samples. High MELK expression in human tumors correlated with shorter survival...

Impact of Pregnancy and Lactation on the Long-Term Regulation of Energy Balance in Female Mice

During pregnancy and lactation, the maternal body undergoes many changes in the regulation of appetite, body weight, and glucose homeostasis to deal with the metabolic demands of the growing fetus and subsequent demands of providing milk for offspring. The aim of the current study was to investigate the consequences of one reproductive cycle of pregnancy and lactation on the long...

Progesterone as a Postnatal Prophylactic Agent for Encephalopathy Caused by Prenatal Hypoxic Ischemic Insult

Brain damage caused by hypoxic ischemic insult during the perinatal period causes hypoxic ischemic encephalopathies (HIEs). Therapeutic hypothermia is indicated for HIE, but because the therapeutic burden is large for its limited therapeutic effectiveness, another strategy is needed. Progesterone (P4) plays a neuroprotective role through the actions of its metabolite...

Glucocorticoid-Induced Metabolic Disturbances Are Exacerbated in Obese Male Mice

The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of glucocorticoid-induced metabolic dysfunction in the presence of diet-induced obesity. C57BL/6J adult male lean and diet-induced obese mice were given dexamethasone, and levels of hepatic steatosis, insulin resistance, and lipolysis were determined. Obese mice given dexamethasone had significant, synergistic effects on...

Bidirectional GPR119 Agonism Requires Peptide YY and Glucose for Activity in Mouse and Human Colon Mucosa

The lipid sensor G protein–coupled receptor 119 (GPR119) is highly expressed by enteroendocrine L-cells and pancreatic β-cells that release the hormones, peptide YY (PYY) and glucagonlike peptide 1, and insulin, respectively. Endogenous oleoylethanolamide (OEA) and the dietary metabolite, 2-monoacylglycerol (2-OG), can each activate GPR119. Here, we compared mucosal responses...

A Predictive, Quantitative Model of Spiking Activity and Stimulus-Secretion Coupling in Oxytocin Neurons

Oxytocin neurons of the rat hypothalamus project to the posterior pituitary, where they secrete their products into the bloodstream. The pattern and quantity of that release depends on the afferent inputs to the neurons, on their intrinsic membrane properties, and on nonlinear interactions between spiking activity and exocytosis: A given number of spikes will trigger more...