Cellular & Molecular Immunology

http://www.nature.com/cmi

List of Papers (Total 466)

The histone methyltransferase EZH2 primes the early differentiation of follicular helper T cells during acute viral infection

Epigenetic modifications to histones dictate the differentiation of naïve CD4+ T cells into different subsets of effector T helper (TH) cells. The histone methyltransferase enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) has been implicated in the mechanism regulating the differentiation of TH1, TH2 and regulatory T (Treg) cells. However, whether and how EZH2 regulates follicular helper T...

Programming of macrophages by UV-irradiated apoptotic cancer cells inhibits cancer progression and lung metastasis

Apoptotic cell clearance by phagocytes is essential in tissue homeostasis. We demonstrated that conditioned medium (CM) from macrophages exposed to apoptotic cancer cells inhibits the TGFβ1-induced epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT), migration, and invasion of cancer cells. Apoptotic 344SQ (ApoSQ) cell-induced PPARγ activity in macrophages increased the levels of PTEN, which...

Visualization of perforin/gasdermin/complement-formed pores in real cell membranes using atomic force microscopy

Different types of pores ubiquitously form in cell membranes, leading to various types of cell death that profoundly influence the fate of inflammation and the disease status. However, these pores have never truly been visualized to date. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), which is emerging as a powerful tool to analyze the mechanical properties of biomolecules and cells, is actually...

B cell development is critically dependent on NFATc1 activity

B cell development in bone marrow is a precisely regulated complex process. Through successive stages of differentiation, which are regulated by a multitude of signaling pathways and an array of lineage-specific transcription factors, the common lymphoid progenitors ultimately give rise to mature B cells. Similar to early thymocyte development in the thymus, early B cell...

Post-transcriptional regulator Rbm47 elevates IL-10 production and promotes the immunosuppression of B cells

Regulatory B cells (Bregs) are a functionally defined B cell subset, and IL-10 is crucial for the suppressive functions of Bregs. However, little is known regarding how IL-10 production is regulated in B cells. To explore the mechanisms by which IL-10 is regulated in B cells, we used mRNA microarrays to screen for molecules that are upregulated in IL-10-producing B cells and...

The microbiome and autoimmunity: a paradigm from the gut–liver axis

Microbial cells significantly outnumber human cells in the body, and the microbial flora at mucosal sites are shaped by environmental factors and, less intuitively, act on host immune responses, as demonstrated by experimental data in germ-free and gnotobiotic studies. Our understanding of this link stems from the established connection between infectious bacteria and immune...

Low-dose decitabine enhances the effect of PD-1 blockade in colorectal cancer with microsatellite stability by re-modulating the tumor microenvironment

PD-1 blockade has demonstrated impressive clinical outcomes in colorectal cancers that have high microsatellite instability. However, the therapeutic efficacy for patients with tumors with low microsatellite instability or stable microsatellites needs further improvement. Here, we have demonstrated that low-dose decitabine could increase the expression of immune-related genes...

Trophoblast-derived CXCL16 induces M2 macrophage polarization that in turn inactivates NK cells at the maternal–fetal interface

Decidual macrophages (dMΦ) are distinct from the conventional macrophages present in other tissues and express M2 macrophage markers, but the molecular mechanisms of formation and the roles of M2 MΦ during pregnancy have not been completely elucidated. The crosstalk between decidual natural killer cells (dNK) and dMΦ plays an important role in the maintenance of maternal–fetal...

Interferon-β induced in female genital epithelium by HIV-1 glycoprotein 120 via Toll-like-receptor 2 pathway acts to protect the mucosal barrier

More than 40% of HIV infections occur via female reproductive tract (FRT) through heterosexual transmission. Epithelial cells that line the female genital mucosa are the first line of defense against HIV-1 and other sexually transmitted pathogens. These sentient cells recognize and respond to external stimuli by induction of a range of carefully balanced innate immune responses...

TLR-mediated metabolic reprogramming in the tumor microenvironment: potential novel strategies for cancer immunotherapy

Cellular energy metabolism not only promotes tumor cell growth and metastasis but also directs immune cell survival, proliferation and the ability to perform specific and functional immune responses within the tumor microenvironment. A better understanding of the molecular regulation of metabolism in different cell components in the tumor-suppressive microenvironment is critical...

Type III interferon-induced CBFβ inhibits HBV replication by hijacking HBx

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and its associated chronic infection remain serious health threats worldwide. However, there is still no impactful approach for clinical treatment of hepatitis B patients. Therefore, developing a better understanding of the interactions between HBV and its host is particularly important. HBV infection has been reported to induce type-III but not type-I or...

Application of light sheet microscopy for qualitative and quantitative analysis of bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue in mice

Bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) develops at unpredictable locations around lung bronchi following pulmonary inflammation. The formation and composition of BALT have primarily been investigated by immunohistology that, due to the size of the invested organ, is usually restricted to a limited number of histological sections. To assess the entire BALT of the lung, other...

Epigenetic regulation in B-cell maturation and its dysregulation in autoimmunity

B cells have a critical role in the initiation and acceleration of autoimmune diseases, especially those mediated by autoantibodies. In the peripheral lymphoid system, mature B cells are activated by self or/and foreign antigens and signals from helper T cells for differentiating into either memory B cells or antibody-producing plasma cells. Accumulating evidence has shown that...

The functions of tumor suppressor PTEN in innate and adaptive immunity

The tumor suppressor phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) is a lipid and protein phosphatase that is able to antagonize the PI3K/AKT pathway and inhibit tumor growth. PTEN also possesses phosphatase-independent functions. Genetic alterations of PTEN may lead to the deregulation of cell proliferation, survival, differentiation, energy metabolism and cellular architecture and...

CD4+ T cells memorize obesity and promote weight regain

Body weight regain often causes failure of obesity therapies while the underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. In this study, we report that immune cells, especially CD4+ T cells, mediate the ‘memory’ of previous obese status. In a weight gain-loss-regain model, we found that C57BL/6J mice with an obesity history showed a much faster rate of body weight regain. This obesity...

B cell regulation in cancer and anti-tumor immunity

The balance between immune effector cells and immunosuppressive cells and how this regulates the tumor microenvironment has been well described. A significant contribution of immune regulatory cells, including regulatory T cells, to tumor progression has been widely reported. An emerging body of evidence has recently recognized a role for B cells in modulating the immune response...