The Program Committee of the Third Parameterized Algorithms and Computational Experiments challenge (PACE 2018) reports on the third iteration of the PACE challenge. This year, all three tracks were dedicated to solve the Steiner Tree problem, in which, given an edge-weighted graph and a subset of its vertices called terminals, one has to find a minimum-weight subgraph which...

We consider the problem of counting the linear extensions of an n-element poset whose cover graph has treewidth at most t. We show that the problem can be solved in time O~(n^{t+3}), where O~ suppresses logarithmic factors. Our algorithm is based on fast multiplication of multivariate polynomials, and so differs radically from a previous O~(n^{t+4})-time inclusion - exclusion...

Proofs of space (PoS) [Dziembowski et al., CRYPTO'15] are proof systems where a prover can convince a verifier that he "wastes" disk space. PoS were introduced as a more ecological and economical replacement for proofs of work which are currently used to secure blockchains like Bitcoin. In this work we investigate extensions of PoS which allow the prover to embed useful data into...

The Ising model originated in statistical physics as a means of studying phase transitions in magnets, and has been the object of intensive study for almost a century. Combinatorially, it can be viewed as a natural distribution over cuts in a graph, and it has also been widely studied in computer science, especially in the context of approximate counting and sampling. In this...

We study the problem of approximately simulating a t-step random walk on a graph where the input edges come from a single-pass stream. The straightforward algorithm using reservoir sampling needs O(nt) words of memory. We show that this space complexity is near-optimal for directed graphs. For undirected graphs, we prove an Omega(n sqrt{t})-bit space lower bound, and give a near...

We consider the following game between two players Alice and Bob, which we call the mirror game. Alice and Bob take turns saying numbers belonging to the set {1, 2, ...,N}. A player loses if they repeat a number that has already been said. Otherwise, after N turns, when all the numbers have been spoken, both players win. When N is even, Bob, who goes second, has a very simple...

In recent years, the polynomial method from circuit complexity has been applied to several fundamental problems and obtains the state-of-the-art running times (e.g., R. Williams's n^3 / 2^{Omega(sqrt{log n})} time algorithm for APSP). As observed in [Alman and Williams, STOC 2017], almost all applications of the polynomial method in algorithm design ultimately rely on certain...

Property-preserving hashing is a method of compressing a large input x into a short hash h(x) in such a way that given h(x) and h(y), one can compute a property P(x, y) of the original inputs. The idea of property-preserving hash functions underlies sketching, compressed sensing and locality-sensitive hashing. Property-preserving hash functions are usually probabilistic: they use...

What can be computed by a network of n randomized finite state machines communicating under the stone age model (Emek & Wattenhofer, PODC 2013)? The inherent linear upper bound on the total space of the network implies that its global computational power is not larger than that of a randomized linear space Turing machine, but is this tight? We answer this question affirmatively...

I will provide a historical perspective on wait-free simulations of multi-bit shared registers using single-bit shared registers, starting with classical results from the last century and ending with an overview of the recent resurgence of interest in the topic. Particular emphasis will be placed on the space and step complexities of such simulations.

In previous work it has been shown how to generate natural deduction rules for propositional connectives from truth tables, both for classical and constructive logic. The present paper extends this for the constructive case with proof-terms, thereby extending the Curry-Howard isomorphism to these new connectives. A general notion of conversion of proofs is defined, both as a...

Beyond-planarity focuses on the study of geometric and topological graphs that are in some sense nearly planar. Here, planarity is relaxed by allowing edge crossings, but only with respect to some local forbidden crossing configurations. Early research dates back to the 1960s (e.g., Avital and Hanani 1966) for extremal problems on geometric graphs, but is also related to graph...

Beyond-planarity focuses on the study of geometric and topological graphs that are in some sense nearly planar. Here, planarity is relaxed by allowing edge crossings, but only with respect to some local forbidden crossing configurations. Early research dates back to the 1960s (e.g., Avital and Hanani 1966) for extremal problems on geometric graphs, but is also related to graph...

Assume for a graph G=(V,E) and an initial configuration, where each node is blue or red, in each discrete-time round all nodes simultaneously update their color to the most frequent color in their neighborhood and a node keeps its color in case of a tie. We study the behavior of this basic process, which is called majority model, on the Erd�s-R�nyi random graph G_{n,p} and...

K�nig-Egerv�ry graphs form an important graph class which has been studied extensively in graph theory. Much attention has also been paid on K�nig-Egerv�ry subgraphs and K�nig-Egerv�ry graph modification problems. In this paper, we focus on one K�nig-Egerv�ry subgraph problem, called the Maximum Edge Induced K�nig Subgraph problem. By exploiting the classical Gallai-Edmonds...

Beyond-planarity focuses on the study of geometric and topological graphs that are in some sense nearly planar. Here, planarity is relaxed by allowing edge crossings, but only with respect to some local forbidden crossing configurations. Early research dates back to the 1960s (e.g., Avital and Hanani 1966) for extremal problems on geometric graphs, but is also related to graph...

Assume for a graph G=(V,E) and an initial configuration, where each node is blue or red, in each discrete-time round all nodes simultaneously update their color to the most frequent color in their neighborhood and a node keeps its color in case of a tie. We study the behavior of this basic process, which is called majority model, on the Erd�s-R�nyi random graph G_{n,p} and...

In this paper, we consider a variant of the facility location problem. Imagine the scenario where facilities are categorized into multiple types such as schools, hospitals, post offices, etc. and the cost of connecting a client to a facility is realized by the distance between them. Each client has a total budget on the distance she/he is willing to travel. The goal is to open...

The stochastic knapsack problem is a stochastic version of the well known deterministic knapsack problem, in which some of the input values are random variables. There are several variants of the stochastic problem. In this paper we concentrate on the chance-constrained variant, where item values are deterministic and item sizes are stochastic. The goal is to find a maximum value...

In real-time systems, in addition to the functional correctness recurrent tasks must fulfill timing constraints to ensure the correct behavior of the system. Partitioned scheduling is widely used in real-time systems, i.e., the tasks are statically assigned onto processors while ensuring that all timing constraints are met. The decision version of the problem, which is to check...

A border u of a word w is a proper factor of w occurring both as a prefix and as a suffix. The maximal unbordered factor of w is the longest factor of w which does not have a border. Here an O(n log n)-time with high probability (or O(n log n log^2 log n)-time deterministic) algorithm to compute the Longest Unbordered Factor Array of w for general alphabets is presented, where n...

We consider the problem of encoding two-dimensional arrays, whose elements come from a total order, for answering Top-k queries. The aim is to obtain encodings that use space close to the information-theoretic lower bound, which can be constructed efficiently. For 2 x n arrays, we first give upper and lower bounds on space for answering sorted and unsorted 3-sided Top-k queries...

We present the first solution to tau-majorities on tree paths. Given a tree of n nodes, each with a label from [1..sigma], and a fixed threshold 0<tau<1, such a query gives two nodes u and v and asks for all the labels that appear more than tau * |P_{uv}| times in the path P_{uv} from u to v, where |P_{uv}| denotes the number of nodes in P_{uv}. Note that the answer to any query...

We study the problem of approximate shortest path queries in chordal graphs and give a n log n + o(n log n) bit data structure to answer the approximate distance query to within an additive constant of 1 in O(1) time. We study the problem of succinctly storing a static chordal graph to answer adjacency, degree, neighbourhood and shortest path queries. Let G be a chordal graph...

A c-color choice dictionary of size n in N is a fundamental data structure in the development of space-efficient algorithms that stores the colors of n elements and that supports operations to get and change the color of an element as well as an operation choice that returns an arbitrary element of that color. For an integer f>0 and a constant c=2^f, we present a word-RAM...