LIPICS - Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics

http://drops.dagstuhl.de/opus/institut_lipics.php

List of Papers (Total 5,946)

Tensor Network Complexity of Multilinear Maps

We study tensor networks as a model of arithmetic computation for evaluating multilinear maps. These capture any algorithm based on low border rank tensor decompositions, such as O(n^{omega+epsilon}) time matrix multiplication, and in addition many other algorithms such as O(n log n) time discrete Fourier transform and O^*(2^n) time for computing the permanent of a matrix...

A Simple Sublinear-Time Algorithm for Counting Arbitrary Subgraphs via Edge Sampling

In the subgraph counting problem, we are given a (large) input graph G(V, E) and a (small) target graph H (e.g., a triangle); the goal is to estimate the number of occurrences of H in G. Our focus here is on designing sublinear-time algorithms for approximately computing number of occurrences of H in G in the setting where the algorithm is given query access to G. This problem...

Bitcoin: A Natural Oligopoly

Although Bitcoin was intended to be a decentralized digital currency, in practice, mining power is quite concentrated. This fact is a persistent source of concern for the Bitcoin community. We provide an explanation using a simple model to capture miners' incentives to invest in equipment. In our model, n miners compete for a prize of fixed size. Each miner chooses an investment...

Placing Conditional Disclosure of Secrets in the Communication Complexity Universe

In the conditional disclosure of secrets (CDS) problem (Gertner et al., J. Comput. Syst. Sci., 2000) Alice and Bob, who hold n-bit inputs x and y respectively, wish to release a common secret z to Carol (who knows both x and y) if and only if the input (x,y) satisfies some predefined predicate f. Alice and Bob are allowed to send a single message to Carol which may depend on...

On Solving Linear Systems in Sublinear Time

We study sublinear algorithms that solve linear systems locally. In the classical version of this problem the input is a matrix S in R^{n x n} and a vector b in R^n in the range of S, and the goal is to output x in R^n satisfying Sx=b. For the case when the matrix S is symmetric diagonally dominant (SDD), the breakthrough algorithm of Spielman and Teng [STOC 2004] approximately...

Hamiltonian Sparsification and Gap-Simulation

Analog quantum simulation - simulation of one Hamiltonian by another - is one of the major goals in the noisy intermediate-scale quantum computation (NISQ) era, and has many applications in quantum complexity. We initiate the rigorous study of the physical resources required for such simulations, where we focus on the task of Hamiltonian sparsification. The goal is to find a...

Submodular Secretary Problem with Shortlists

In submodular k-secretary problem, the goal is to select k items in a randomly ordered input so as to maximize the expected value of a given monotone submodular function on the set of selected items. In this paper, we introduce a relaxation of this problem, which we refer to as submodular k-secretary problem with shortlists. In the proposed problem setting, the algorithm is...

Self-Stabilizing Token Distribution with Constant-Space for Trees

Self-stabilizing and silent distributed algorithms for token distribution in rooted tree networks are given. Initially, each process of a graph holds at most l tokens. Our goal is to distribute the tokens in the whole network so that every process holds exactly k tokens. In the initial configuration, the total number of tokens in the network may not be equal to nk where n is the...

Loosely-Stabilizing Leader Election with Polylogarithmic Convergence Time

A loosely-stabilizing leader election protocol with polylogarithmic convergence time in the population protocol model is presented in this paper. In the population protocol model, which is a common abstract model of mobile sensor networks, it is known to be impossible to design a self-stabilizing leader election protocol. Thus, in our prior work, we introduced the concept of...

Parameterized Synthesis of Self-Stabilizing Protocols in Symmetric Rings

Self-stabilization in distributed systems is a technique to guarantee convergence to a set of legitimate states without external intervention when a transient fault or bad initialization occurs. Recently, there has been a surge of efforts in designing techniques for automated synthesis of self-stabilizing algorithms that are correct by construction. Most of these techniques...

Concurrent Specifications Beyond Linearizability

With the advent of parallel architectures, distributed programs are used intensively and the question of how to formally specify the behaviors expected from such programs becomes crucial. A very general way to specify concurrent objects is to simply give the set of all the execution traces that we consider correct for the object. In many cases, one is only interested in studying...

On Simple Back-Off in Unreliable Radio Networks

In this paper, we study local and global broadcast in the dual graph model, which describes communication in a radio network with both reliable and unreliable links. Existing work proved that efficient solutions to these problems are impossible in the dual graph model under standard assumptions. In real networks, however, simple back-off strategies tend to perform well for...

Approximate Neighbor Counting in Radio Networks

For many distributed algorithms, neighborhood size is an important parameter. In radio networks, however, obtaining this information can be difficult due to ad hoc deployments and communication that occurs on a collision-prone shared channel. This paper conducts a comprehensive survey of the approximate neighbor counting problem, which requires nodes to obtain a constant factor...

Linear Rendezvous with Asymmetric Clocks

Two anonymous robots placed at different positions on an infinite line need to rendezvous. Each robot possesses a clock which it uses to time its movement. However, the robot's individual parameters in the form of their walking speed and time unit may or may not be the same for both robots. We study the feasibility of rendezvous in different scenarios, in which some subsets of...

Optimal Rendezvous L-Algorithms for Asynchronous Mobile Robots with External-Lights

We study the Rendezvous problem for two autonomous mobile robots in asynchronous settings with persistent memory called light. It is well known that Rendezvous is impossible in a basic model when robots have no lights, even if the system is semi-synchronous. On the other hand, Rendezvous is possible if robots have lights of various types with a constant number of colors. If...

Task Computability in Unreliable Anonymous Networks

We consider the anonymous broadcast model: a set of n anonymous processes communicate via send-to-all primitives. We assume that underlying communication channels are asynchronous but reliable, and that the processes are subject to crash failures. We show first that in this model, even a single faulty process precludes implementations of atomic objects with non-commuting...

The Synergy of Finite State Machines

What can be computed by a network of n randomized finite state machines communicating under the stone age model (Emek & Wattenhofer, PODC 2013)? The inherent linear upper bound on the total space of the network implies that its global computational power is not larger than that of a randomized linear space Turing machine, but is this tight? We answer this question affirmatively...

Output-Oblivious Stochastic Chemical Reaction Networks

We classify the functions f:N^2 -> N which are stably computable by output-oblivious Stochastic Chemical Reaction Networks (CRNs), i.e., systems of reactions in which output species are never reactants. While it is known that precisely the semilinear functions are stably computable by CRNs, such CRNs sometimes rely on initially producing too many output species, and then...

Causal Broadcast: How to Forgetl

Causal broadcast constitutes a fundamental communication primitive of many distributed protocols and applications. However, state-of-the-art implementations fail to forget obsolete control information about already delivered messages. They do not scale in large and dynamic systems. In this paper, we propose a novel implementation of causal broadcast. We prove that all and only...

You Only Live Multiple Times: A Blackbox Solution for Reusing Crash-Stop Algorithms In Realistic Crash-Recovery Settings

Distributed agreement-based algorithms are often specified in a crash-stop asynchronous model augmented by Chandra and Toueg's unreliable failure detectors. In such models, correct nodes stay up forever, incorrect nodes eventually crash and remain down forever, and failure detectors behave correctly forever eventually, However, in reality, nodes as well as communication links...

Characterizing Asynchronous Message-Passing Models Through Rounds

Message-passing models of distributed computing vary along numerous dimensions: degree of synchrony, kind of faults, number of faults... Unfortunately, the sheer number of models and their subtle distinctions hinder our ability to design a general theory of message-passing models. One way out of this conundrum restricts communication to proceed by round. A great variety of...

Federated Byzantine Quorum Systems

Some of the recent blockchain proposals, such as Stellar and Ripple, use quorum-like structures typical for Byzantine consensus while allowing for open membership. This is achieved by constructing quorums in a decentralised way: each participant independently chooses whom to trust, and quorums arise from these individual decisions. Unfortunately, the theoretical foundations...

Correctness of Tendermint-Core Blockchains

Tendermint-core blockchains (e.g. Cosmos) are considered today one of the most viable alternatives for the highly energy consuming proof-of-work blockchains such as Bitcoin and Ethereum. Their particularity is that they aim at offering strong consistency (no forks) in an open system combining two ingredients (i) a set of validators that generate blocks via a variant of Practical...

Hybrid Fault-Tolerant Consensus in Asynchronous and Wireless Embedded Systems

Byzantine fault-tolerant (BFT) consensus in an asynchronous system can only tolerate up to floor[(n-1)/3] faulty processes in a group of n processes. This is quite a strict limit in certain application scenarios, for example a group consisting of only 3 processes. In order to break through this limit, we can leverage a hybrid fault model, in which a subset of the system is...

Effects of Topology Knowledge and Relay Depth on Asynchronous Appoximate Consensus

Consider a point-to-point message-passing network. We are interested in the asynchronous crash-tolerant consensus problem in incomplete networks. We study the feasibility and efficiency of approximate consensus under different restrictions on topology knowledge and the relay depth, i.e., the maximum number of hops any message can be relayed. These two constraints are common in...