# LIPICS - Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics

http://drops.dagstuhl.de/opus/institut_lipics.php

## List of Papers (Total 5,996)

#### Colouring (P_r+P_s)-Free Graphs

The k-Colouring problem is to decide if the vertices of a graph can be coloured with at most k colours for a fixed integer k such that no two adjacent vertices are coloured alike. If each vertex u must be assigned a colour from a prescribed list L(u) subseteq {1,...,k}, then we obtain the List k-Colouring problem. A graph G is H-free if G does not contain H as an induced subgraph...

#### Opinion Forming in Erd\"os-R\'enyi Random Graph and Expanders

Assume for a graph G=(V,E) and an initial configuration, where each node is blue or red, in each discrete-time round all nodes simultaneously update their color to the most frequent color in their neighborhood and a node keeps its color in case of a tie. We study the behavior of this basic process, which is called majority model, on the Erd�s-R�nyi random graph G_{n,p} and...

#### Exploiting Sparsity for Bipartite Hamiltonicity

We present a Monte Carlo algorithm that detects the presence of a Hamiltonian cycle in an n-vertex undirected bipartite graph of average degree delta >= 3 almost surely and with no false positives, in (2-2^{1-delta})^{n/2}poly(n) time using only polynomial space. With the exception of cubic graphs, this is faster than the best previously known algorithms. Our method is a...

#### Approximate Matchings in Massive Graphs via Local Structure (Invited Talk)

Finding a maximum matching is a fundamental algorithmic problem and is fairly well understood in traditional sequential computing models. Some modern applications require that we handle massive graphs and hence we need to consider algorithms in models that do not allow the entire input graph to be held in the memory of one computer, or models in which the graph is evolving over...

#### Going Beyond Traditional Characterizations in the Age of Big Data and Network Sciences (Invited Talk)

What are efficient algorithms? What are network models? Big Data and Network Sciences have fundamentally challenged the traditional polynomial-time characterization of efficiency and the conventional graph-theoretical characterization of networks. More than ever before, it is not just desirable, but essential, that efficient algorithms should be scalable. In other words, their...

#### B\"uchi Good-for-Games Automata Are Efficiently Recognizable

Good-for-Games (GFG) automata offer a compromise between deterministic and nondeterministic automata. They can resolve nondeterministic choices in a step-by-step fashion, without needing any information about the remaining suffix of the word. These automata can be used to solve games with omega-regular conditions, and in particular were introduced as a tool to solve Church's...

#### B\"uchi Good-for-Games Automata Are Efficiently Recognizable

Good-for-Games (GFG) automata offer a compromise between deterministic and nondeterministic automata. They can resolve nondeterministic choices in a step-by-step fashion, without needing any information about the remaining suffix of the word. These automata can be used to solve games with omega-regular conditions, and in particular were introduced as a tool to solve Church's...

#### B\"uchi Good-for-Games Automata Are Efficiently Recognizable

Good-for-Games (GFG) automata offer a compromise between deterministic and nondeterministic automata. They can resolve nondeterministic choices in a step-by-step fashion, without needing any information about the remaining suffix of the word. These automata can be used to solve games with omega-regular conditions, and in particular were introduced as a tool to solve Church's...

#### B\"uchi Good-for-Games Automata Are Efficiently Recognizable

Good-for-Games (GFG) automata offer a compromise between deterministic and nondeterministic automata. They can resolve nondeterministic choices in a step-by-step fashion, without needing any information about the remaining suffix of the word. These automata can be used to solve games with omega-regular conditions, and in particular were introduced as a tool to solve Church's...

#### B\"uchi Good-for-Games Automata Are Efficiently Recognizable

Good-for-Games (GFG) automata offer a compromise between deterministic and nondeterministic automata. They can resolve nondeterministic choices in a step-by-step fashion, without needing any information about the remaining suffix of the word. These automata can be used to solve games with omega-regular conditions, and in particular were introduced as a tool to solve Church's...

#### B\"uchi Good-for-Games Automata Are Efficiently Recognizable

Good-for-Games (GFG) automata offer a compromise between deterministic and nondeterministic automata. They can resolve nondeterministic choices in a step-by-step fashion, without needing any information about the remaining suffix of the word. These automata can be used to solve games with omega-regular conditions, and in particular were introduced as a tool to solve Church's...

#### Reducing Transducer Equivalence to Register Automata Problems Solved by "Hilbert Method"

In the past decades, classical results from algebra, including Hilbert's Basis Theorem, had various applications in formal languages, including a proof of the Ehrenfeucht Conjecture, decidability of HDT0L sequence equivalence, and decidability of the equivalence problem for functional tree-to-string transducers. In this paper, we study the scope of the algebraic methods mentioned...

#### The Complexity of Separation for Levels in Concatenation Hierarchies

We investigate the complexity of the separation problem associated to classes of regular languages. For a class C, C-separation takes two regular languages as input and asks whether there exists a third language in C which includes the first and is disjoint from the second. First, in contrast with the situation for the classical membership problem, we prove that for most classes...

#### Parameterized Dynamic Cluster Editing

We introduce a dynamic version of the NP-hard Cluster Editing problem. The essential point here is to take into account dynamically evolving input graphs: Having a cluster graph (that is, a disjoint union of cliques) that represents a solution for a first input graph, can we cost-efficiently transform it into a "similar" cluster graph that is a solution for a second ("subsequent...

#### Stronger Tradeoffs for Orthogonal Range Querying in the Semigroup Model

In this paper, we focus on lower bounds for data structures supporting orthogonal range querying on m points in n-dimensions in the semigroup model. Such a data structure usually maintains a family of "canonical subsets" of the given set of points and on a range query, it outputs a disjoint union of the appropriate subsets. Fredman showed that in order to prove lower bounds in...

#### On the Boundedness Problem for Higher-Order Pushdown Vector Addition Systems

Karp and Miller's algorithm is a well-known decision procedure that solves the termination and boundedness problems for vector addition systems with states (VASS), or equivalently Petri nets. This procedure was later extended to a general class of models, well-structured transition systems, and, more recently, to pushdown VASS. In this paper, we extend pushdown VASS to higher...

#### Bundled Fragments of First-Order Modal Logic: (Un)Decidability

Quantified modal logic is notorious for being undecidable, with very few known decidable fragments such as the monodic ones. For instance, even the two-variable fragment over unary predicates is undecidable. In this paper, we study a particular fragment, namely the bundled fragment, where a first-order quantifier is always followed by a modality when occurring in the formula...

#### Extending Propositional Separation Logic for Robustness Properties

We study an extension of propositional separation logic that can specify robustness properties, such as acyclicity and garbage freedom, for automatic verification of stateful programs with singly-linked lists. We show that its satisfiability problem is PSpace-complete, whereas modest extensions of the logic are shown to be Tower-hard. As separating implication, reachability...

#### On the Inner Product Predicate and a Generalization of Matching Vector Families

Motivated by cryptographic applications such as predicate encryption, we consider the problem of representing an arbitrary predicate as the inner product predicate on two vectors. Concretely, fix a Boolean function P and some modulus q. We are interested in encoding x to x_vector and y to y_vector so that P(x,y) = 1 <=> <x_vector,y_vector> = 0 mod q, where the vectors should be...

#### Sketching, Streaming, and Fine-Grained Complexity of (Weighted) LCS

We study sketching and streaming algorithms for the Longest Common Subsequence problem (LCS) on strings of small alphabet size |Sigma|. For the problem of deciding whether the LCS of strings x,y has length at least L, we obtain a sketch size and streaming space usage of O(L^{|Sigma| - 1} log L). We also prove matching unconditional lower bounds. As an application, we study a...

#### Deterministic Algorithms for Maximum Matching on General Graphs in the Semi-Streaming Model

We present an improved deterministic algorithm for Maximum Cardinality Matching on general graphs in the Semi-Streaming Model. In the Semi-Streaming Model, a graph is presented as a sequence of edges, and an algorithm must access the edges in the given sequence. It can only use O(n polylog n) space to perform computations, where n is the number of vertices of the graph. If the...

#### Extending Finite-Memory Determinacy by Boolean Combination of Winning Conditions

We study finite-memory (FM) determinacy in games on finite graphs, a central question for applications in controller synthesis, as FM strategies correspond to implementable controllers. We establish general conditions under which FM strategies suffice to play optimally, even in a broad multi-objective setting. We show that our framework encompasses important classes of games from...

#### The Delta-Framework

We introduce the Delta-framework, LF_Delta, a dependent type theory based on the Edinburgh Logical Framework LF, extended with the strong proof-functional connectives, i.e. strong intersection, minimal relevant implication and strong union. Strong proof-functional connectives take into account the shape of logical proofs, thus reflecting polymorphic features of proofs in formulae...

#### Safe and Optimal Scheduling for Hard and Soft Tasks

We consider a stochastic scheduling problem with both hard and soft tasks on a single machine. Each task is described by a discrete probability distribution over possible execution times, and possible inter-arrival times of the job, and a fixed deadline. Soft tasks also carry a penalty cost to be paid when they miss a deadline. We ask to compute an online and non-clairvoyant...

#### Sub-Exponential Time Parameterized Algorithms for Graph Layout Problems on Digraphs with Bounded Independence Number

Fradkin and Seymour [Journal of Combinatorial Graph Theory, Series B, 2015] defined the class of digraphs of bounded independence number as a generalization of the class of tournaments. They argued that the class of digraphs of bounded independence number is structured enough to be exploited algorithmically. In this paper, we further strengthen this belief by showing that several...