Cadernos de Saúde Pública

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List of Papers (Total 449)

Vigilância alimentar e nutricional: antecedentes, objetivos e modalidades. A VAN no Brasil

The authors describe the concepts, objectives, components and strategic actions that are most frequently recommended for the development of systems of food and nutritional surveillance. The study outlines the importance of a continuous process of data collection, processing and analysis for the follow-up of food and nutritional trends. The System for Food and Nutritional...

ENDEF e PNSN: para onde caminha o crescimento físico da criança brasileira?

This paper compares the results of two nationally representative nutritional surveys carried out in Brazil: the "Estudo Nacional de Despesa Familiar (ENDEF)" (National Survey on Household Expenses), conducted in 1974-77, and the "Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde e Nutrição (PNSN)" (National Survey on Health and Nutrition), conducted in 1989. The findings point to a reduction of more...

Mortes no trânsito do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

The evolution of the city of Rio de Janeiro during the 20th century, particularly since 1950, has been strongly characterized by increasing concession of privileges for the use of motor vehicles for both mass (and especially) individual transportation. One of the main consequences of this policy was a rising mortality rate due to traffic accidents during the 1980s, among men and...

Gender-based abuse: the global epidemic

Gender Based violence-including rape, domestic violence, murder and sexual abuse-is a profund health problem for women across the globe. Although a significant cause of female morbidity and mortality, violence against women has only recently begun to be recognized as an issue for public health. This paper draws together existing data on the dimensions of violence against women...

Epidemiologia e serviços de saúde

The growing application of epidemiological investigation to the health and medical field has consolidated its various uses in health care services. Brazilian legislation now provides back-up for four different types of applications, although their implementation is still precarious: analysis of the health situation, epidemiological surveillance, etiological studies, and...

Metodologia para a estimativa de padrões de qualidade: o caso do infarto agudo do miocárdio

This study outlines the steps for estimating quality standards in health care to be used in quality improvement programs and funding mechanisms, focusing on the case of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The methodology is based on existing scientific evidence related to technologies currently used for treatment of AMI in Brazil. Hospital lethality was estimated for selected sets...

Inquérito domiciliar como instrumento de avaliação de serviços de saúde: um estudo de caso na região sudoeste da área metropolitana de São Paulo, 1989-1990

The increasing importance of health evaluation has raised the need of incorporating epidemiological methodology to assess both technologies and health services. Evaluation of health services performance requires population data to identify the unmet demand and patterns of health services utilization. Such data can be obtained through household surveys. A household survey in the...

Mortalidade infantil em duas coortes de base populacional no Sul do Brasil: tendências e diferenciais

Time trends in infant mortality were assessed through two cohort studies carried out in Pelotas, Southern Brazil, in 1982 and 1993. Both cohorts included all hospital deliveries, and deaths were monitored through regular visits to hospitals, cemeteries, and notary publics. Information on cause of death was obtained from pediatricians, case notes, autopsies, and home visits to...

Hospitalizações em menores de um ano pertencentes a duas coortes de base populacional no Sul do Brasil: tendências e diferenciais

Over 11,000 children belonging to population-based cohorts were followed through infancy in the city of Pelotas, Brazil, in 1982 and 1993. Our objective was to measure the incidence of hospital admissions and the association with birthweight and family income, comparing differentials between the two studies. Approximately 20% of infants were hospitalized at least once, rates...

Mortalidade perinatal em duas coortes de base populacional no Sul do Brasil: tendências e diferenciais

Trends in perinatal mortality were studied in Pelotas (southern Brazil) through surveys carried out in 1982 and 1993. All hospital births and perinatal deaths were assessed by daily visits to all maternity hospitals. Cause of death was determined through review of hospital case notes, interviews with pediatricians, and autopsies. The perinatal mortality rate decreased by 31% over...

Histopatologia do câncer de estômago (classificação de Lauren) em amostra de pacientes hospitalares no Rio de Janeiro, 1980-1995

This study draws a random sample (334 individuals) of all patients diagnosed with stomach cancer from 1980 to 1995 at the National Cancer Institute in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and reviews histopathological data. Agreement between previous and present classification of the histopathological material (Laurén's classification) was considered quite substantial (kappa = 0.65). Based on...

A mortalidade por câncer de estômago no Brasil: análise do período de 1977 a 1989

Both incidence and mortality of stomach cancer have been declining in most of the world in the last decades. However, this phenomenon has not been studied in Brazil. Although data on incidence rates are insufficient, there is a standardized historical series on mortality data beginning in 1977. This study analyzes trends for stomach cancer mortality during the 1977-1989 period...

Measuring exposure to organochlorinated pesticides

Environmental epidemiological investigations in cancer remain, with rare exceptions, inconclusive. The difficulties of establishing patterns of measurements of exposure in the human body is one of the limitations of these studies. The findings of six recent epidemiological studies that analyzed the association between organochlorinated compounds and breast cancer are reviewed in...

Asbestos: current issues related to cancer and to uses in developing countries

Asbestos is one of the main occupational carcinogens recognized and studied in the literature. Its uses have undergone major changes in recent decades, with severe restrictions on commercial amphiboles according to different patterns: in developed countries asbestos is strictly controlled or banned, except in Japan, while in developing countries consumption has leveled off or...

Clinical, cytogenetic and toxicological studies in rural workers exposed to pesticides in Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil

Pesticides can cause gene mutations and chromosomal aberrations in exposed individuals. We have investigated 24 workers exposed to pesticides. Clinical examinations and cytogenetic and toxicological tests were performed. Ten non-exposed individuals were used as controls. Toxicological dosages of copper, zinc and manganese (metals found in some pesticides), hepatic enzyme dosage...

Proposal to institutionalize criteria and quality standards for cervical cancer screening within a health care system

The uterine cervix is the most common cancer site for females. Approximately 52,000 new cases occur annually in Latin America, thus the need to improve efficiency and effectiveness of Cervical Cancer Screening Programs (CCSP) is mandatory to decrease the unnecessary suffering women must bear. This paper is addressing essential issues to revamp the CCSP as proposed by the Mexican...

Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma risk derived from exposure to organic solvents: a review of epidemiologic studies

The rate of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL) has increased around the world during the last decades. Apart from the role of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in the development of NHL, exposure to chemical agents like phenoxyacetic pesticides, hair dyes, metal fumes and organic solvents are suspected to be involved. The present review evaluates the results of studies...

Algunos elementos para interpretar la presencia de los varones en los procesos de salud reproductiva

This study aims to identify analytical approaches to situate men in processes pertaining to reproductive health. We challenge the position that identifies them only as actors that can support improvements in the health of women and children. More recently there has been a concern over reshaping their role, as individuals who both reproduce and face risks to their reproductive...

Sexualidade e corpo: o olhar do sujeito através das imagens em vídeo

This study analyzes images of the body linked to sexual and reproductive behavior found in the communication processes mediated by so-called educational videos. In the relationship between subject and technology, the paper is intended to characterize the discourses and the view or perspective currently shaping health education practices. Focusing on the potential in the...

Análise do conhecimento e das concepções sobre saúde oral de alunos de odontologia: avaliação por meio de mapas conceituais

This study sought to analyze senior dental students' cognitive structure concerning the topic of "enamel", which is fundamentally important for understanding oral health, since it offers basic scientific concepts for clinical and preventive practices and is the main subject of several courses during dentistry training. The strategy used to analyze students' cognitive structures...

Articulando ensino e pesquisa: construindo uma proposta de capacitação para docentes do ensino técnico

Based on the experience of a teacher training program entitled Program for Continuing Education of Polytechnic Faculty (PAETEC) developed by the Escola Politécnica de Saúde Joaquim Venâncio (EPSJV/FIOCRUZ), this article is intended to contribute to the discussion of alternatives for continuing vocational teacher education programs. In the search for new on-the-job teacher...

Potencial biológico do Triatoma brasiliensis

Biological and physiological parameters of Triatoma brasiliensis, Triatoma infestans, and Triatoma pseudomaculata were studied and compared. T. brasiliensis, reared on mice, showed a faster evolutionary cycle from first stage to adult and higher fecundity, when compared to the other species. T. infestans showed the fastest blood intake in both hosts tested, followed by T...

Alterações do peridomicílio e suas implicações para o controle do Triatoma brasiliensis

A total of 9,906 annexes from 1,541 rural dwellings of Boa Viagem County, Ceará, Brazil, infested by Triatoma brasiliensis and Triatoma pseudomaculata were investigated and immediately sprayed with pyrethroid insecticide, followed by revisions at 6, 12, and 18 months. The initial infestation rate of annexes was 4.0%, with predominant infestation in animal shelters (7.0%). Mean...

An ecosystem approach to human health and the prevention of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Tumaco, Colombia

A study was conducted during 1996-1997 in 20 villages of Tumaco, Colombia, to evaluate the effectiveness of personal protective measures against cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). The intervention was effective, but the high costs of the preventive measures and the lack of a more holistic approach hampered the intervention's sustainability. This paper analyzes the results using an...