# Water Conservation Science and Engineering

## List of Papers (Total 42)

#### Climate Change and Urbanization Impact on Hydropower Plant by Neural Network-Based Decision-Making Methods: Identification of the Most Significant Parameter

The change in climate and rate of urbanization affects and unbalances the equilibrium between the demand and supply of energy resources. Hydropower plants are one of the most affected systems. But not all the operational parameters get influenced by this change. The significance varies between the parameters and indicators. Until now, there are no studies which try to identify...

#### Reduction of Organic Load and Biodegradation of Palm Oil Mill Effluent by Aerobic Indigenous Mixed Microbial Consortium Isolated from Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME)

This study was designed to determine the potential of indigenous mixed microbial consortium isolated from palm oil mill effluent (POME) in reducing organic load and biodegradation of POME. Isolation and identification of indigenous microorganisms was subjected to standard microbiological methods and sequencing of the 16S rRNA and 18S rRNA genes. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA and 18S...

#### Assessment of Circulation Indices Affecting Indian Summer Monsoon Rainfall, in Addition to ENSO and Equinoo

Indian summer monsoon rainfall (ISMR) is a crucial factor affecting the economy of the country. Prediction of ISMR is crucial for formulating strategies of agriculture and its planning and for better management of water resources of the country. Thus, in the present study, significant lagged circulation indices affecting rainfall of months of ISMR are determined by application of...

#### Effective Adsorption of Crystal Violet Dye from an Aqueous Solution Using Lignin-Rich Isolate from Elephant Grass

A lignin-based adsorbent ELGA, obtained from alkaline hydrolysis of elephant grass, was utilized for the removal of aqueous crystal violet dye (CVD). Batch mode experiments were carried out to study the effects of various process parameters on adsorption. ELGA was characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The...

#### Removal of Cr(VI) from Its Aqueous Solution Using Green Adsorbent Pistachio Shell: a Fixed Bed Column Study and GA-ANN Modeling

Long-term exposure of Cr(VI) causes severe health effects to the living beings. A continuous fixed bed experimental study is carried out by using pistachio shell as green and eco-friendly adsorbent for Cr(VI) adsorption. Effects of several operating parameters on Cr(VI) removal were investigated using the breakthrough curves ($$\frac{C_t}{C_0}$$ versus time) and determination...

#### Benchmarking Water Use in the UK Food and Drink Sector: Case Study of Three Water-Intensive Dairy Products

There is an established body of research on water use by the domestic and agricultural sectors, but very little peer-reviewed literature have been published on industrial water use. This has been attributed to the commercially competitive and complex nature of the industrial sector, and the attendant difficulties in collecting requisite data for any analysis (Reynaud, 2003...

#### Water Footprint as an Emerging Environmental Tool for Assessing Sustainable Water Use of the Bioethanol Distillery at Metahara Sugarcane Farm, Oromiya Region, Ethiopia

In Ethiopia, sugarcane estate farms and bioethanol distilleries are being expanded at an alarming rate to provide alternative sustainable energy as renewable, affordable, and low carbon footprint bioenergy for the transportation sector. The promotion of bioethanol production is definitely poised to cause high competition for water resources. Thus, the aim of this study was to...

#### Transport of E. coli in Presence of Naturally Occuring Colloids in Saturated Porous Media

This study focuses on the effects of organic (humic acid substances) and inorganic (bentonite clay, silicate, and kaolinite clay) colloids on the transport of bacteria under saturated flow conditions. The transport experiments of Escherichia coli were performed in 40-cm long column filled with river sand of diameter 400 μm. Batch sorption experiments were conducted to understand...

#### Prediction of Operation Efficiency of Water Treatment Plant with the Help of Multi-criteria Decision-making

Nearly a quarter-million people in the earth do not have access to drinking water. Within the 2.5% of water available in the World, only 1 % is utilizable. Due to the various organic and inorganic pollutants in the water, one of the main reasons for nearly 80% of the three million early deaths observed in the developing countries, are due to drinking of contaminated water. That...

#### Leak Detection in Pipe Networks Using Hybrid ANN Method

The idea of hydro informatics is applied for determining the assignment dilemma accompanied to water-based mechanism. This consideration applied prototype data as well as assertion for developing advantageous prototype for water-based approach. Hydro informatics can also assist for hydraulics, hydrology, and mechanical engineering. Hydro informatics applies software-based...

#### Identifying Seasonal Opportunities to Save Water: Using Weekly Rainfall and Evapotranspiration Patterns to Evaluate Outdoor Water Restriction Policy in South Florida

Evaluating trends of historical rainfall and lawn water demand on a weekly and seasonal basis is needed for optimizing lawn and landscape water conservation policy. Outdoor water restrictions are a common conservation strategy and typically feature a “day of the week” schedule to limit the frequency and duration of urban lawn water use. However, outdoor water restrictions may not...

#### Degradation of Synthetic Azo Dyes of Textile Industry: a Sustainable Approach Using Microbial Enzymes

By releasing of azo dye through textile effluent, textile industry is the main cause of water pollution resulting into acute effect on environment and human health. Development of any eco-friendly and cost-effective method that may address the drawbacks to physical or chemical methods of dye removal is the recent global priority. Physical or chemical methods for textile...

#### Analyzing Stakeholder Water Source Preference Based upon Social Capital: a Case Study of the Fajr Jam Gas Refinery in Iran

Gas refineries are among the most water-intensive industries in the world. The Fajr Jam gas refinery is one such example, located in the southern Iran. The indiscriminate use of aquifer resources for this highly profitable industry creates tragedy of the commons effects, causing significant environmental controversy and threatening the long-term water security of the region. It...

#### Prediction of Major Wastewater Characteristics of Urban Wastewater Treatment Plant Using Fuzzy Composite Programing

Due to fluctuations in organic and hydraulic loading in a wastewater treatment plant, the application of fuzzy logic, using linguistic variables gave a better description of performance parameters. The study describes the strength of wastewater in terms of effluent wastewater index (EWWI). The EWWI was has been developed with fuzzy composite programming (FCP). Further dissolved...

#### Deturbidization of Petroleum-Produced Water by Novel Mucuna Seed: Characterization, Kinetics, and Statistical Analyses

This work studied the removal of produced water (PW) turbidity by novel Mucuna seed coagulant (MSC) using single-angle nephelometry. MSC was a by-product of sequential ethanol-multiple salt oil extraction from the Mucuna seed. The process kinetics, statistics, and purification efficiency at varying PW pH levels and MSC dosages were investigated. The precursor (Mucuna flagellipes...

#### Evaluation of Catalytic Efficiency of Coriolopsis caperata DN Laccase to Decolorize and Detoxify RBBR Dye

Application of enzymes for the removal of environmentally hazardous synthetic dyes from waste water has been considered eco-friendly and economic as compared with nonenzymatic techniques. In the present study, response surface methodology has been applied to decolorize and detoxify a recalcitrant and toxic anthraquinone dye Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR) using Coriolopsis...

#### Impact of Dam on Flow Regime and Flood Plain Modification in Punarbhaba River Basin of Indo-Bangladesh Barind Tract

Punarbhaba river basin of Indo-Bangladesh (5265.93 sq. km) is an evident example of hydrologically and ecologically modified river since 1992. One dam was installed over Dhepa River in 1992, which is main water supplier to Punarbhaba River at Birganj (25°51′46″N and 88°39′52″E) in Bangladesh. Since then, flow character of the river has changed as well as integrity of the...

#### Removal of Cr(VI) and Pb(II) from Wastewater by ZeoliteNaX in Fixed Bed Column

The ability of synthetic zeoliteNaX to remove Cr(VI) and Pb(II) from aqueous solutions was studied in fixed bed column. The effect of bed height (4, 6, 8 in.) and flow rate (0.825, 1.6, 2.14, 4.0, 5.0 L/h) was studied. The uptake and percentage removal of Cr(VI) Pb(II) and on zeoliteNaX for 4-in. column were found to be 5.66 and 8.896 mg/g and 84.99 and 89%, respectively. The bed...

#### The Potency of Indonesia Native Plants as Natural Coagulant: a Mini Review

Indonesia is a tropical country which is known for its high variety of natural resources. However, there is limited access to clean water, thus forcing people in rural areas to use turbid water. Furthermore, some of water sources in Indonesia are already polluted by heavy metals with high biological oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) value. Simple and easy water...

#### A Facile Platform for Photocatalytic Reduction of Methylene Blue Dye By CdSe-TiO2 Nanoparticles

Herein, we report on the demonstration of enhanced photocatalytic reduction of methylene blue (MB) dye using a physical mixture (w/w ratio: 50:1–9) of TiO2 nanoparticles (size ≈ 20 ± 1 nm) and CdSe nanocrystals (size ≈ 3.0 ± 0.2 nm). It was found that at the highest content of the nanocrystals (9 mg) in the physical mixture, 67% reduction in the dye concentration could be...

#### Template-Free Processing of Ag-Anchored ZnO Polyscale Sheets and Their Application in the Photocatalytic Degradation of Organics Present in Pharmaceutical Waste

Template-free processing of Ag-anchored ZnO polyscale sheets was successfully synthesized using the one-pot hydrothermal technique. The characterization of the synthesized samples was done using powder X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, UV-vis spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The photocatalytic degradation...

#### Diversity of Eukaryotic Algae in Propylene Oxide Saponification Wastewater Activated Sludge

Eukaryotic algae play an important role to maintain the energy cycle and provide oxygen in the ecosystem of water environment, such as rivers, lakes, and wastewater activated sludge. As one of the important microorganisms in the activated sludge, the community structure of eukaryotic algae in the activated sludge is still not clear. Activated sludge process had been successfully...

#### Wastewater Confronting Realities for Sustainable Livelihood in Developing Countries: Case Study Mekelle University, Ethiopia

Water is becoming a scarce resource in terms of quantity and quality. Water supply enhancement measures are being taken with less attention given to wastewater management, leading to increased discharge of untreated wastewaters. Wastewater is emerging as an affordable and reliable alternative water supply for urban agriculture, supporting thousands of farmers. Extensive use of...

#### A Comparative Study of Electrochemical Treatment of Para-Toluic Acid (p-TA) from Aqueous Solution: Process Optimization and Sludge Analysis

The present study deals with the removal of para-toluic acid (p-TA) as well as chemical oxygen demand (COD) from synthetic solution. Pretreatment of aqueous solution was done by acid precipitation at different pH levels (3–6) and temperatures (15–60 °C). The pretreated solution was further treated by electrocoagulation (EC) and electro-Fenton (EF) treatment technologies using...

#### Biosorption of Phenol and Cyanide from Synthetic/Simulated Wastewater by Sugarcane Bagasse—Equilibrium Isotherm and Kinetic Analyses

Sugarcane bagasse biosorbents were tested for biosorption of phenol and cyanide from synthetic/simulated wastewater. The influence of pH, biosorbent dose, temperature, contact time, and initial concentration of phenol and cyanide was investigated. At an optimum temperature 30 °C, pH 7, and the biosorbent dose of 40 g/L, 66.78% phenol and 79.30% cyanide were removed from binary...