Brain

https://academic.oup.com/brain

List of Papers (Total 5,212)

Probabilistic mapping of the antidystonic effect of pallidal neurostimulation: a multicentre imaging study

Deep brain stimulation of the internal globus pallidus is a highly effective and established therapy for primary generalized and cervical dystonia, but therapeutic success is compromised by a non-responder rate of up to 25%, even in carefully-selected groups. Variability in electrode placement and inappropriate stimulation settings may account for a large proportion of this...

Neurological toxicities associated with chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy

Chimeric antigen receptor T cell therapy has become an important tool in the treatment of relapsed and refractory malignancy; however, it is associated with significant neurological toxicity. We characterized the neurological toxicity associated with chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy in a consecutive series of 100 patients up to 2 months post transfusion, 28 of whom were...

Cerebral perfusion changes in presymptomatic genetic frontotemporal dementia: a GENFI study

Genetic forms of frontotemporal dementia are most commonly due to mutations in three genes, C9orf72, GRN or MAPT, with presymptomatic carriers from families representing those at risk. While cerebral blood flow shows differences between frontotemporal dementia and other forms of dementia, there is limited evidence of its utility in presymptomatic stages of frontotemporal dementia...

Interictal and ictal source localization for epilepsy surgery using high-density EEG with MEG: a prospective long-term study

Drug-resistant focal epilepsy is a major clinical problem and surgery is under-used. Better non-invasive techniques for epileptogenic zone localization are needed when MRI shows no lesion or an extensive lesion. The problem is interictal and ictal localization before propagation from the epileptogenic zone. High-density EEG (HDEEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) offer...

Optical coherence tomography: a window to the optic nerve in clinically isolated syndrome

In this study, we aimed to evaluate the association of asymptomatic optic nerve demyelinating lesion in patients presenting a clinically isolated syndrome with the asymptomatic retinal neuro-axonal loss previously reported at clinically isolated syndrome. We prospectively recruited 66 patients presenting a clinically isolated syndrome and 66 healthy control subjects matched...

The landscape of the mesenchymal signature in brain tumours

The complexity of glioblastoma multiforme, the most common and lethal variant of gliomas, is reflected by cellular and molecular heterogeneity at both the inter- and intra-tumoural levels. Molecular subtyping has arisen in the past two decades as a promising strategy to give better predictions of glioblastoma multiforme evolution, common disease pathways, and rational treatment...

Overt social interaction and resting state in young adult males with autism: core and contextual neural features

Conversation is an important and ubiquitous social behaviour. Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (autism) without intellectual disability often have normal structural language abilities but deficits in social aspects of communication like pragmatics, prosody, and eye contact. Previous studies of resting state activity suggest that intrinsic connections among neural...

Early neurophysiological biomarkers and spinal cord pathology in inherited prion disease

A common presentation of inherited prion disease is Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome, typically presenting with gait ataxia and painful dysaesthesiae in the legs evolving over 2–5 years. The most frequent molecular genetic diagnosis is a P102L mutation of the prion protein gene (PRNP). There is no explanation for why this clinical syndrome is so distinct from Creutzfeldt...

Risk and predictors of dementia and parkinsonism in idiopathic REM sleep behaviour disorder: a multicentre study

Idiopathic REM sleep behaviour disorder (iRBD) is a powerful early sign of Parkinson’s disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, and multiple system atrophy. This provides an unprecedented opportunity to directly observe prodromal neurodegenerative states, and potentially intervene with neuroprotective therapy. For future neuroprotective trials, it is essential to accurately estimate...

Fumarates target the metabolic-epigenetic interplay of brain-homing T cells in multiple sclerosis

Cell-permeable formulations of metabolites, such as fumaric acid esters, have been used as highly effective immunomodulators in patients with multiple sclerosis and yet their mechanism of action remains elusive. Since fumaric acid esters are metabolites, and cell metabolism is highly intertwined with the epigenetic regulation of gene expression, we investigated whether this...

Abnormal visuo-vestibular interactions in vestibular migraine: a cross sectional study

Vestibular migraine is among the commonest causes of episodic vertigo. Chronically, patients with vestibular migraine develop abnormal responsiveness to both vestibular and visual stimuli characterized by heightened self-motion sensitivity and visually-induced dizziness. Yet, the neural mechanisms mediating such symptoms remain unknown. We postulate that such symptoms are...

Mutations in the microtubule-associated protein MAP11 (C7orf43) cause microcephaly in humans and zebrafish

Microtubule associated protein 11 (MAP11, previously termed C7orf43) encodes a highly conserved protein whose function is unknown. Through genome-wide linkage analysis combined with whole exome sequencing, we demonstrate that human autosomal recessive primary microcephaly is caused by a truncating mutation in MAP11. Moreover, homozygous MAP11-orthologue CRISPR/Cas9 knock-out...

Blood–brain barrier pericytes as a target for HIV-1 infection

Pericytes are multifunctional cells wrapped around endothelial cells via cytoplasmic processes that extend along the abluminal surface of the endothelium. The interactions between endothelial cells and pericytes of the blood–brain barrier are necessary for proper formation, development, stabilization, and maintenance of the blood–brain barrier. Blood–brain barrier pericytes...

Gene therapy improves motor and mental function of aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase deficiency

In patients with aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) deficiency, a decrease in catecholamines and serotonin levels in the brain leads to developmental delay and movement disorders. The beneficial effects of gene therapy in patients from 1 to 8 years of age with homogeneous severity of disease have been reported from Taiwan. We conducted an open-label phase 1/2 study of...

Key role of SMN/SYNCRIP and RNA-Motif 7 in spinal muscular atrophy: RNA-Seq and motif analysis of human motor neurons

Spinal muscular atrophy is a motor neuron disorder caused by mutations in SMN1. The reasons for the selective vulnerability of motor neurons linked to SMN (encoded by SMN1) reduction remain unclear. Therefore, we performed deep RNA sequencing on human spinal muscular atrophy motor neurons to detect specific altered gene splicing/expression and to identify the presence of a common...

Brain vital signs detect concussion-related neurophysiological impairments in ice hockey

There is a growing demand for objective evaluations of concussion. We developed a portable evoked potential framework to extract ‘brain vital signs’ using electroencephalography. Brain vital signs were derived from well established evoked responses representing auditory sensation (N100), basic attention (P300), and cognitive processing (N400) amplitudes and latencies, converted...

Development and validation of the Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease Infant Scale

Many genetic subtypes of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) show signs of symptomatic disease during the earliest years of life. This might be the ideal time to intervene before progression of clinical sequelae due to demyelination and axonal loss. In the absence of disease-specific clinical trial outcome measures for CMT during infancy and early childhood the aim of this study...

The search for pain biomarkers in the human brain

Non-invasive functional brain imaging is used more than ever to investigate pain in health and disease, with the prospect of finding new means to alleviate pain and improve patient wellbeing. The observation that several brain areas are activated by transient painful stimuli, and that the magnitude of this activity is often graded with pain intensity, has prompted researchers to...

Face perception enhances insula and motor network reactivity in Tourette syndrome

Tourette syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder, characterized by motor and phonic tics. Tics are typically experienced as avolitional, compulsive, and associated with premonitory urges. They are exacerbated by stress and can be triggered by external stimuli, including social cues like the actions and facial expressions of others. Importantly, emotional social stimuli, with...

Brain structural alterations are distributed following functional, anatomic and genetic connectivity

The pathological brain is characterized by distributed morphological or structural alterations in the grey matter, which tend to follow identifiable network-like patterns. We analysed the patterns formed by these alterations (increased and decreased grey matter values detected with the voxel-based morphometry technique) conducting an extensive transdiagnostic search of voxel...

n-3 Docosapentaenoic acid-derived protectin D1 promotes resolution of neuroinflammation and arrests epileptogenesis

Epilepsy therapy is based on drugs that treat the symptoms rather than the underlying mechanisms of the disease (epileptogenesis). There are no treatments for preventing seizures or improving disease prognosis, including neurological comorbidities. The search of pathogenic mechanisms of epileptogenesis highlighted that neuroinflammatory cytokines [i.e. interleukin-1β (IL-1...

White matter diffusion alterations precede symptom onset in autosomal dominant Alzheimer’s disease

White matter alterations are present in the majority of patients with Alzheimer’s disease type dementia. However, the spatiotemporal pattern of white matter changes preceding dementia symptoms in Alzheimer’s disease remains unclear, largely due to the inherent diagnostic uncertainty in the preclinical phase and increased risk of confounding age-related vascular disease and stroke...

Balance control systems in Parkinson’s disease and the impact of pedunculopontine area stimulation

Impaired balance is a major contributor to falls and diminished quality of life in Parkinson’s disease, yet the pathophysiology is poorly understood. Here, we assessed if patients with Parkinson’s disease and severe clinical balance impairment have deficits in the intermittent and continuous control systems proposed to maintain upright stance, and furthermore, whether such...