Self-limited delayed puberty (DP) is often associated with a delay in physical maturation, but although highly heritable the causal genetic factors remain elusive. Genome-wide association studies of the timing of puberty have identified multiple loci for age at menarche in females and voice break in males, particularly in pathways controlling energy balance.
Fetal overexposure to glucocorticoids in utero is associated with fetal growth restriction and is postulated to be a key mechanism linking suboptimal fetal growth with cardiovascular disease in later life.
To assess the efficacy and safety of pasireotide long-acting release (PAS-LAR) alone or in combination with pegvisomant by switching patients with acromegaly who were well controlled with long-acting somatostatin analogues (LA-SSAs) and pegvisomant to PAS-LAR with or without pegvisomant.
There are ethnic differences in glucoregulation and prevalence of type 2 diabetes, but studies on the role of genetics in modifying ethnic effects in normoglycemic African-Americans and Caucasians are limited. Therefore, we investigated glucoregulation in normoglycemic African-Americans and Caucasians with or without parental diabetes.
Radioactive iodine (RAI) treatment is often indicated after total thyroidectomy in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). However, its role in biochemical or locoregional persistent DTC is unclear. We aimed to investigate the effect of a second RAI treatment in patients with incomplete response to initial treatment and no evidence of distant metastases.
Elevated urine net acid excretion (NAE), indicative of subclinical metabolic acidosis, has been associated with higher bone turnover. Urine citrate, which is a common clinical measure, changes in response to acid-base status but its association with bone turnover is uncertain.
Hyperglycemia plays a key role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular complications of diabetes. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with high-density lipoprotein (HDL) dysfunction and increased degradation of apolipoprotein I (ApoAI). The mechanism(s) of these changes is largely unknown.
Immune checkpoint inhibitors, including anti–programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1), anti–programmed cell death protein ligand 1 (PD-L1), and anti–cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (anti-CTLA4) monoclonal antibodies, have been widely used in cancer treatment. They are known to cause immune-related adverse events (irAEs), which resemble autoimmune diseases. Anterior pituitary...
Aerobic exercise training can increase brain volume and blood flow, but the impact on brain metabolism is less known.
Prenatal exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES), a prototype endocrine-disrupting chemical, is associated with risk for adverse reproductive outcomes and cancer in women. We investigated whether cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk might also be greater in women prenatally exposed to DES.
Albright hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO) is caused by heterozygous inactivating mutations in GNAS. Depending on the parental origin of the mutated allele, patients develop either pseudohypoparathyroidism type 1A (PHP1A), with multihormone resistance and severe obesity, or pseudopseudohypoparathyroidism (PPHP), without hormonal abnormalities or marked obesity. Subcutaneous...
Neurokinin B (NKB) is obligate for human puberty, but its role in adult female gonadotropin secretion and ovarian follicle growth is unknown.
Spillover of fatty acids (FAs) into the plasma nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) pool, because of an inability of adipose tissue (AT) to accommodate sufficient fat uptake, has been suggested to contribute to obesity-related insulin resistance. Using specific labeling techniques, we compared the proportion of spillover-derived NEFA across a range of adiposity.
Given the global rise in both type 1 diabetes incidence and obesity, the role of body mass index (BMI) on type 1 diabetes pathophysiology has gained great interest. Sustained excess BMI in pediatric participants of the TrialNet Pathway to Prevention (PTP) cohort increased risk for progression to type 1 diabetes, but the effects of age and obesity in adults remain largely unknown.
Growth hormone (GH) therapy may improve statural growth outcomes in patients with severe juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA).
The experimental paradigm of acute caloric restriction (CR) followed by refeeding (RF) can be used to study the homeostatic mechanisms that regulate energy homeostasis, which are relevant to understanding the adaptive response to weight loss.
Postmenopausal estradiol therapy (ET) can reduce the stress response. However, it remains unclear whether such reductions can mitigate effects of stress on cognition.
Estrogens affect the incidence and progression of colorectal cancer (CRC), although the precise molecular mechanisms remain ill-defined.
Mounting evidence suggests beneficial effects of brown adipose tissue (BAT) activation on glucose and lipid metabolism in humans. It is unclear whether cold-induced BAT activation affects not only insulin sensitivity but also insulin secretion. Likewise, the role in clearing circulating fatty acids (FAs) has not been fully explored.
Despite a position as the first-line pharmacotherapy in type 2 diabetes, the glucose-lowering mechanisms of metformin remain to be fully clarified. Gut-derived modes of action, including suppression of bile acid reabsorption and a resulting increase in glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion, have been proposed.
Even though the majority of well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma (WDTC) is indolent, a number of cases display an aggressive behavior. Cumulative evidence suggests that the deregulation of DNA methylation has the potential to point out molecular markers associated with worse prognosis.