The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism

https://academic.oup.com/jcem

List of Papers (Total 14,395)

The Effect of a Desogestrel-Containing Oral Contraceptive on Glucose Tolerance and Leptin Concentrations in Hyperandrogenic Women

Ovarian hyperandrogenism can be associated with insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, glucose intolerance, and obesity. High levels of the lipostatic hormone, leptin, have also been reported in this condition. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of an oral contraceptive (OC) of low androgenicity containing desogestrel on glucose tolerance in hyperandrogenic...

Identification of a Large-Scale Mitochondrial Deoxyribonucleic Acid Deletion in Endocrinopathies and Deafness: Report of Two Unrelated Cases with Diabetes Mellitus and Adrenal Insufficiency, Respectively

In recent years, a broad variety of chronic diseases have been related to different mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) rearrangements. We have investigated two 16-yr-old unrelated girls with unexplained endocrine disorders for a mtDNA mutation. One initially presented with an adrenal crisis at the age of 4 yr. Complete adrenal insufficiency for nearly 15 yr was the main clinical...

The Expression and Activity of Prostaglandin H Synthase-2 Is Enhanced in Trophoblast from Women with Preeclampsia

Preeclampsia is associated with altered biosynthesis of vasoactive prostanoids in placental villi. The two isozymes of prostaglandin H synthase (PGHS) are essential for prostanoid synthesis. We tested the hypothesis that PGHS-2 expression is elevated in trophoblast from preeclamptic women, compared with trophoblast from healthy women. Using immunofluorescent staining, we...

Deletion of the Adrenocorticotropin Receptor Gene in Human Adrenocortical Tumors: Implications for Tumorigenesis

Constitutive activating mutations of G protein-coupled receptors, such as that of TSH, have been implicated in the tumorigenesis of human endocrine neoplasms, such as thyroid adenomas. In a previous study we reported that constitutive activating point mutations of the ACTH receptor (ACTH-R) gene, a member of the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily, were not present in hormone...

Complementary Deoxyribonucleic Acid Cloning and Characterization of a Putative Human Axonemal Dynein Light Chain Gene

Immotile Cilia Syndrome (ICS) is characterized by recurrent sinus and lung infections, bronchiectasis, and sperm immotility. Nasal cilia and sperm tails in patients with ICS exhibit a variety of ultrastructural defects, often including shortening or absence of the inner dynein arms. Immotile mutant strains of Chlamydomonas, a biflagellated algae, have ultrastructural defects...

Specific Linkages Among Luteinizing Hormone, Follicle-Stimulating Hormone, and Testosterone Release in the Peripheral Blood and Human Spermatic Vein: Evidence for Both Positive (Feed-Forward) and Negative (Feedback) Within-Axis Regulation

We have investigated possible (negative) feedback and (positive) feed-forward activity within the human male gonadotropic axis by measuring serum concentrations of LH, FSH, and testosterone in blood sampled frequently and for a prolonged interval (every 20 min for 19 h) simultaneously from the peripheral circulation and the left spermatic vein. Cross-correlation analysis with...

Short-Term Variations in Bone Remodeling Biochemical Markers: Cyclical Etidronate and Alendronate Effects Compared

Bone-remodeling markers have been proposed to monitor antiosteoporotic therapy, as substantial changes in these markers usually occur in a relatively short time interval. In this study we have evaluated the short term effects of two bisphosphonates on bone-remodeling markers with the aim of 1) defining the shortest reliable time interval after which markers should be measured...

Evidence for the Oligoclonal Origin of the Granulosa Cell Population of the Mature Human Follicle

The clonality of the granulosa cell population residing in individual mature human ovarian follicles was examined by determining the pattern of X chromosome inactivation. Granulosa cells from 72 follicles were obtained from 9 patients undergoing oocyte harvest for in vitro fertilization. The granulosa cell DNA obtained from each follicle was subjected to the PCR, to amplify a...

Endogenous Glucose Production Following Injury Increases with Age

To evaluate the influence of aging on the increase in endogenous glucose production that follows injury, we studied 22 fully resuscitated, clinically stable, previously healthy patients aged ≤30 yr or ≥60 yr admitted to hospital following injury, and 11 healthy volunteers in the same age groups. Endogenous glucose production was determined using a primed constant infusion of d...

Effect of Aging on the Sensitivity of Growth Hormone Secretion to Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I Negative Feedback

To determine the effect of aging on the suppression of GH secretion by insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I, we studied 11 healthy young adults (6 men, 5 women, mean ± sd: 25.2 ± 4.6 yr old; body mass index 23.7 ± 1.8 kg/m2) and 11 older adults (6 men, 5 women, 69.5 ± 5.8 yr old; body mass index 24.2 ± 2.5 kg/m2). Saline (control) or recombinant human IGF-I (rhIGF-I) (2 h baseline...

The Importance of Growth Hormone in the Regulation of Erythropoiesis, Red Cell Mass, and Plasma Volume in Adults with Growth Hormone Deficiency

Total body water (TBW) is reduced in adult GH deficiency (GHD) largely due to a reduction of extracellular water. It is unknown whether total blood volume (TBV) contributes to the reduced extracellular water in GHD. GH and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) have been demonstrated to stimulate erythropoiesis in vitro, in animal models, and in growing children. Whether GH has a...

Insulin-Like Growth Factor-Binding Protein-6 Levels Are Elevated in Serum of Children with Chronic Renal Failure: A Report of the Southwest Pediatric Nephrology Study Group

Previous studies suggest that growth retardation in children with chronic renal failure (CRF) results in part from inhibition of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) action by excess serum IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs). Excess IGFBPs in CRF serum include IGFBP-1, -2, and -3 and a diffuse ∼24- to 28-kDa IGFBP band identified by[ 125I]IGF ligand blot. The present studies characterized...

Procollagen Propeptide and Pyridinium Cross-Links as Markers of Type I Collagen Turnover: Sex- and Age-Related Changes in Healthy Children

The correlations among age, gender, body size parameters, and type I collagen metabolism were evaluated in 183 healthy infants, aged 8.5–27.5 months. Collagen formation was assessed by measuring serum type I collagen carboxy-terminal propeptide, and degradation was determined by urinary pyridinoline and deoxypyridinoline (measured by high performance liquid chromatography) and...

Increased Proportion of Circulating Non-22-Kilodalton Growth Hormone Isoforms in Short Children: A Possible Mechanism for Growth Failure

Current knowledge about the interaction between GH and its receptor suggests that the molecular heterogeneity of circulating GH may have important implications for growth. The aim of this study was to investigate the proportion of circulating non-22-kDa GH isoforms in prepubertal children with short stature (height less than −2 sd score) of different etiologies. We have also...

Metabolic and Cardiovascular Assessment in Moderate Obesity: Effect of Weight Loss

Metabolic and hemodynamic abnormalities have been separately described in obesity, and weight reduction is known to lead to some improvement in each. Our aim was to simultaneously assess metabolic and cardiovascular function in normotensive, normotolerant patients with moderate obesity (body mass index = 32.6 ± 1.1 kg/m2) before and after weight loss. The obese were insulin...

Low Thyrotropin Levels Are Not Associated with Bone Loss in Older Women: A Prospective Study

The relationship between excess thyroid hormone and bone loss is controversial. To determine whether low TSH levels, indicating excessive thyroid hormone, are associated with low bone mass or accelerated bone loss in older women, we performed a prospective cohort study of 458 women over age 65 yr participating in the multicenter Study of Osteoporotic Fractures.

Variability of Plasma Cortisol Levels in Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants

Cortisol is secreted by children and adults in a pulsatile pattern of 15–30 peaks and nadirs each day with a circadian rhythm. Newborns are known to lack the circadian pattern, leading to uncertainty about the appropriate time for blood sampling for assessment of adrenal function. Because extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants may manifest signs of adrenal insufficiency...

Metabolic Improvement of Poorly Controlled Noninsulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus Decreases Bone Turnover

Patients with poorly controlled noninsulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) are shown to have higher bone mass. However, the influence of changes in glycemic control on bone turnover is not known. To clarify whether metabolic improvement of poorly controlled NIDDM affects bone turnover, markers for glucose, mineral, and bone metabolism were assessed before and after glycemic...

Dehydroepiandrosterone Treatment Is Not Beneficial to the Immune Response to Influenza in Elderly Subjects

Background. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is a native steroid with an immunomodulating activity that was suggested to counterregulate some phenomena of immunosenescence. Recently, it was shown to reverse the age-associated decline of immune response against influenza vaccine in aged mice. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of DHEA on the immunization of elderly...

Plasma Leptin Levels in Healthy Children and Adolescents: Dependence on Body Mass Index, Body Fat Mass, Gender, Pubertal Stage, and Testosterone

Leptin, the product of the ob gene, is thought to play a key role in the regulation of body fat mass. Beyond this function, it appears to be an integral component of various hypothalamo-pituitary-endocrine feedback loops. Because childhood and puberty are periods of major metabolic and endocrine changes, leptin levels and various hormonal parameters were investigated in a large...

Erratic Oscillatory Characteristics of Plasma Insulin Concentrations in Patients with Insulinoma: Mechanism for Unpredictable Hypoglycemia

Patients with insulin-producing tumors may have hypoglycemic symptoms at unpredictable times. This study evaluated whether plasma insulin oscillations, known to occur in normal individuals but not explored in patients with insulinomas, could be an underlying mechanism for such events. Nine normal subjects and five patients with proven insulinomas were studied in the fasting state...