Only a few genetic causes for childhood obesity have been identified to date. Copy number variants (CNVs) are known to contribute to obesity, both syndromic (15q11.2 deletions, Prader-Willi syndrome) and nonsyndromic (16p11.2 deletions) obesity.
Standard treatment of hypoglycemia is oral carbohydrate, but it often results in hyperglycemia and entails extra caloric intake.
An increase of bile acids (BAs), fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19), and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) has been implicated in metabolic improvements after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and vertical sleeve gastrectomy. However, data are still conflicting regarding their role after laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB).
Microbiota perturbations seem to exert modulatory effects on emotional behavior, stress-, and pain-modulation systems in adult animals; however, limited information is available in humans.
Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes related to vitamin D metabolism have been associated with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration, but these relationships have not been examined following antenatal cholecalciferol supplementation.
Low levels of nonandrogenic anabolic hormones have been linked with frailty, but evidence is conflicting and prospective data are largely lacking.
Despite the apparent biological importance of sympathetic activity on bone metabolism in rodents, its role in humans remains questionable.
Patients with 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21OHD) have long-term complications, resulting from poor disease control and/or glucocorticoid overtreatment. Lack of optimal biomarkers has made it challenging to tailor therapy and predict long-term outcomes.
Variation in genes that cause maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) has been associated with diabetes incidence and glycemic traits.
The increased use of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures that involve radiation raises concerns about radiation effects, particularly in children and the radiosensitive thyroid gland.
Fetuses exposed to an obese intrauterine environment are more likely to be born large-for-gestational age (LGA) and are at increased risk of obesity in childhood and cardiovascular disease and/or type 2 diabetes mellitus as adults, but which factors that influence the intrauterine environment is less clear.
The risk of thyroid cancer increases and persists for decades among individuals exposed to ionizing radiation in childhood, although the long-term effects of childhood exposure to medium to low doses of radiation on thyroid dysfunction and autoimmune thyroid diseases have remained unclear.
Serum thyroid hormone levels differ between children and adults, but have not been studied longitudinally through childhood.
Bariatric surgery (BS) induces major and sustainable weight loss in many patients. Factors predicting poor weight-loss response (PR) need to be identified to improve patient care. Quantification of subcutaneous adipose tissue (scAT) fibrosis is negatively associated with post-BS weight loss, but whether it could constitute a predictor applicable in clinical routine remains to be...
Data on plasma acylated ghrelin (AG) and unacylated ghrelin (UAG) levels in acromegaly are limited. High AG/UAG ratios are linked with type 2 diabetes, obesity, and hyperphagia (e.g., in Prader-Willi syndrome).
Acromegaly has been associated with calcium-phosphate and bone turnover alterations. Controlled studies of these interactions are sparse.
Although there is evidence to support the beneficial effects of statins on major cardiovascular events, few studies address the protective effect of statins on limb outcome.
Testosterone (T) is commonly administered intramuscularly to treat hypogonadal males and female-to-male (FTM) transgender patients. However, these injections can involve significant discomfort and may require arrangements for administration by others.
Cumulative time-dependent excess mortality in hyperthyroid patients has been suggested. However, the effect of antithyroid treatment on mortality, especially in subclinical hyperthyroidism, remains unclarified. We investigated the association between hyperthyroidism and mortality in both treated and untreated hyperthyroid individuals.
Although radiation exposure is an important predictor of thyroid cancer on diagnosis of a thyroid nodule, the relationship between childhood radiation exposure and thyroid nodules has not been comprehensively evaluated.
Extremely low hemoglobin (Hgb) values have been linked to increased fracture risk at different sites. However, careful assessment of clinically defined anemia and fracture risk is lacking.
Inadequate progesterone production from the corpus luteum is associated with pregnancy loss. Data available in model species suggest important roles of microRNAs (miRNAs) in luteal development and maintenance.