Scientific Reports

http://www.nature.com/srep

List of Papers (Total 41,584)

The antiviral drug ganciclovir does not inhibit microglial proliferation and activation

Ganciclovir is effective in the treatment of human infections with viruses of the Herpesviridae family. Beside antiviral properties, recently ganciclovir was described to inhibit microglial proliferation and disease severity of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, an inflammatory model of multiple sclerosis. Microglial activation and proliferation are main characteristics...

Origin of the structure-directing effect resulting in identical topological open-framework materials

In the synthesis of zeolites and related crystalline materials with open-frameworks, a single structure is obtained in the presence of many different templates, known as the “one-structure/multiple-templates” phenomenon. However, the reasons behind this phenomenon have yet to be elucidated. By analyzing the possible starting point of crystallization in several “one-structure...

The thermodynamic cost of driving quantum systems by their boundaries

The laws of thermodynamics put limits to the efficiencies of thermal machines. Analogues of these laws are now established for quantum engines weakly and passively coupled to the environment providing a framework to find improvements to their performance. Systems whose interaction with the environment is actively controlled do not fall in that framework. Here we consider systems...

Highly informative marker sets consisting of genes with low individual degree of differential expression

Genes with significant differential expression are traditionally used to reveal the genetic background underlying phenotypic differences between cancer cells. We hypothesized that informative marker sets can be obtained by combining genes with a relatively low degree of individual differential expression. We developed a method for construction of highly informative gene...

Linking rapid erosion of the Mekong River delta to human activities

As international concern for the survival of deltas grows, the Mekong River delta, the world’s third largest delta, densely populated, considered as Southeast Asia’s most important food basket, and rich in biodiversity at the world scale, is also increasingly affected by human activities and exposed to subsidence and coastal erosion. Several dams have been constructed upstream of...

Co-doping of Ag into Mn:ZnSe Quantum Dots: Giving Optical Filtering effect with Improved Monochromaticity

In optics, when polychromatic light is filtered by an optical filter, the monochromaticity of the light can be improved. In this work, we reported that Ag dopant atoms could be used as an optical filter for nanosized Mn:ZnSe quantum dots (QDs). If no Ag doping, aqueous Mn:ZnSe QDs have low monochromaticity due to coexisting of strong ZnSe band gap emission, ZnSe trap emission...

A three-dimensional spin-diffusion model for micromagnetics

We solve a time-dependent three-dimensional spin-diffusion model coupled to the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation numerically. The presented model is validated by comparison to two established spin-torque models: The model of Slonzewski that describes spin-torque in multi-layer structures in the presence of a fixed layer and the model of Zhang and Li that describes current driven...

Volatile Organic Metabolites Identify Patients with Mesangial Proliferative Glomerulonephritis, IgA Nephropathy and Normal Controls

Urinary volatile organic compounds (VOCs) analysis for kidney diseases has attracted a large amount of scientific interest recently, and urinary metabolite analysis has already been applied to many diseases. Urine was collected from 15 mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis (MsPGN) patients, 21 IgA nephropathy (IgAN) patients and 15 healthy controls. Solid phase...

Epigenetic silencing of the XAF1 gene is mediated by the loss of CTCF binding

XAF1 is a tumour suppressor gene that compromises cell viability by modulating different cellular events such as mitosis, cell cycle progression and apoptosis. In cancer, the XAF1 gene is commonly silenced by CpG-dinucleotide hypermethylation of its promoter. DNA demethylating agents induce transcriptional reactivation of XAF1, sensitizing cancer cells to therapy. The molecular...

Spatial nitrifications of microbial processes during composting of swine, cow and chicken manure

Composting is a widely-used method to recycle the nutrients in livestock manure for agriculture. The spatial stratifications of microbial processes inside the manure particle that determine organic and nitrogen transformation are virtually unclear. Here, we show the evolution of the interior microenvironment of swine, cow and chicken manure by using microelectrodes during forced...

High-fat diet prevents adaptive peripartum-associated adrenal gland plasticity and anxiolysis

Maternal obesity is associated with lower basal plasma cortisol levels and increased risk of postpartum psychiatric disorders. Given that both obesity and the peripartum period are characterized by an imbalance between adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol, we hypothesized that the adrenal glands undergo peripartum-associated plasticity and that such changes would be...

A combinatorial approach towards the design of nanofibrous scaffolds for chondrogenesis

The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a three-dimensional (3D) structure composed of proteinaceous fibres that provide physical and biological cues to direct cell behaviour. Here, we build a library of hybrid collagen-polymer fibrous scaffolds with nanoscale dimensions and screen them for their ability to grow chondrocytes for cartilage repair. Poly(lactic acid) and poly (lactic-co...

Chemiluminometric Immunosensor for High-Sensitivity Cardiac Troponin I Employing a Polymerized Enzyme Conjugate as a Tracer

To detect high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI; <0.01 ng/mL) at points of care, we developed a rapid immunosensor by using horseradish peroxidase polymerized in 20 molecules on average (Poly-HRP) as a tracer conjugated with streptavidin (SA-Poly-HRP). As shown in the conventional system, enhanced sensitivity could be achieved by using a sequential binding scheme for the...

Whispering-gallery nanocavity plasmon-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

The synergy effect in nature could enable fantastic improvement of functional properties and associated effects. The detection performance of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) can be highly strengthened under the cooperation with other factors. Here, greatly-enhanced SERS detection is realized based on rolled-up tubular nano-resonators decorated with silver nanoparticles...

Density-gradient centrifugation enables the purification of cultured corneal endothelial cells for cell therapy by eliminating senescent cells

The corneal endothelium is essential for maintaining corneal transparency; therefore, corneal endothelial dysfunction causes serious vision loss. Tissue engineering-based therapy is potentially a less invasive and more effective therapeutic modality. We recently started a first-in-man clinical trial of cell-based therapy for treating corneal endothelial dysfunction in Japan...

Finding cannabinoids in hair does not prove cannabis consumption

Hair analysis for cannabinoids is extensively applied in workplace drug testing and in child protection cases, although valid data on incorporation of the main analytical targets, ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THC-COOH), into human hair is widely missing. Furthermore, ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid A (THCA-A), the biogenetic precursor of THC, is found in...

Ultrasensitive nonlinear absorption response of large-size topological insulator and application in low-threshold bulk pulsed lasers

Dirac-like topological insulators have attracted strong interest in optoelectronic application because of their unusual and startling properties. Here we report for the first time that the pure topological insulator Bi2Te3 exhibited a naturally ultrasensitive nonlinear absorption response to photoexcitation. The Bi2Te3 sheets with lateral size up to a few micrometers showed...

Homology-directed repair in rodent zygotes using Cas9 and TALEN engineered proteins

The generation of genetically-modified organisms has been revolutionized by the development of new genome editing technologies based on the use of gene-specific nucleases, such as meganucleases, ZFNs, TALENs and CRISPRs-Cas9 systems. The most rapid and cost-effective way to generate genetically-modified animals is by microinjection of the nucleic acids encoding gene-specific...

Terahertz meets sculptural and architectural art: Evaluation and conservation of stone objects with T-ray technology

Conservation of cultural heritage is an area where novel scientific techniques are having enormous impact. Given the value and uniqueness of art pieces, non-invasive diagnostic methods are highly appreciated by conservators. Terahertz radiation has shown enormous potential as non-contact probe that can be used for the three-dimensional reconstruction of internal structure of...

Spillover and pandemic properties of zoonotic viruses with high host plasticity

Most human infectious diseases, especially recently emerging pathogens, originate from animals, and ongoing disease transmission from animals to people presents a significant global health burden. Recognition of the epidemiologic circumstances involved in zoonotic spillover, amplification, and spread of diseases is essential for prioritizing surveillance and predicting future...

Giant photovoltaic effect of ferroelectric domain walls in perovskite single crystals

The photovoltaic (PV) effect in polar materials offers great potential for light-energy conversion that generates a voltage beyond the bandgap limit of present semiconductor-based solar cells. Ferroelectrics have received renewed attention because of the ability to deliver a high voltage in the presence of ferroelastic domain walls (DWs). In recent years, there has been...

Maximizing oyster-reef growth supports green infrastructure with accelerating sea-level rise

Within intertidal communities, aerial exposure (emergence during the tidal cycle) generates strong vertical zonation patterns with distinct growth boundaries regulated by physiological and external stressors. Forecasted accelerations in sea-level rise (SLR) will shift the position of these critical boundaries in ways we cannot yet fully predict, but landward migration will be...

A strategy to discover decoy chemokine ligands with an anti-inflammatory activity

Excessive signaling by chemokines has been associated with chronic inflammation or cancer, thus attracting substantial attention as promising therapeutic targets. Inspired by chemokine-clearing molecules shaped by pathogens to escape the immune system, we designed a generic screening assay to discover chemokine neutralizing molecules (neutraligands) and unambiguously distinguish...

Sgf73, a subunit of SAGA complex, is required for the assembly of RITS complex in fission yeast

RNA interference (RNAi) is a widespread gene-silencing mechanism and is required for heterochromatin assembly in a variety of organisms. The RNA-induced transcriptional silencing complex (RITS), composed of Ago1, Tas3 and Chp1, is a key component of RNAi machinery in fission yeast that connects short interference RNA (siRNA) and heterochromatin formation. However, the process by...