Scientific Reports

http://www.nature.com/srep

List of Papers (Total 41,594)

Finding cannabinoids in hair does not prove cannabis consumption

Hair analysis for cannabinoids is extensively applied in workplace drug testing and in child protection cases, although valid data on incorporation of the main analytical targets, ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THC-COOH), into human hair is widely missing. Furthermore, ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid A (THCA-A), the biogenetic precursor of THC, is found in...

Ultrasensitive nonlinear absorption response of large-size topological insulator and application in low-threshold bulk pulsed lasers

Dirac-like topological insulators have attracted strong interest in optoelectronic application because of their unusual and startling properties. Here we report for the first time that the pure topological insulator Bi2Te3 exhibited a naturally ultrasensitive nonlinear absorption response to photoexcitation. The Bi2Te3 sheets with lateral size up to a few micrometers showed...

Homology-directed repair in rodent zygotes using Cas9 and TALEN engineered proteins

The generation of genetically-modified organisms has been revolutionized by the development of new genome editing technologies based on the use of gene-specific nucleases, such as meganucleases, ZFNs, TALENs and CRISPRs-Cas9 systems. The most rapid and cost-effective way to generate genetically-modified animals is by microinjection of the nucleic acids encoding gene-specific...

Terahertz meets sculptural and architectural art: Evaluation and conservation of stone objects with T-ray technology

Conservation of cultural heritage is an area where novel scientific techniques are having enormous impact. Given the value and uniqueness of art pieces, non-invasive diagnostic methods are highly appreciated by conservators. Terahertz radiation has shown enormous potential as non-contact probe that can be used for the three-dimensional reconstruction of internal structure of...

Spillover and pandemic properties of zoonotic viruses with high host plasticity

Most human infectious diseases, especially recently emerging pathogens, originate from animals, and ongoing disease transmission from animals to people presents a significant global health burden. Recognition of the epidemiologic circumstances involved in zoonotic spillover, amplification, and spread of diseases is essential for prioritizing surveillance and predicting future...

Giant photovoltaic effect of ferroelectric domain walls in perovskite single crystals

The photovoltaic (PV) effect in polar materials offers great potential for light-energy conversion that generates a voltage beyond the bandgap limit of present semiconductor-based solar cells. Ferroelectrics have received renewed attention because of the ability to deliver a high voltage in the presence of ferroelastic domain walls (DWs). In recent years, there has been...

Maximizing oyster-reef growth supports green infrastructure with accelerating sea-level rise

Within intertidal communities, aerial exposure (emergence during the tidal cycle) generates strong vertical zonation patterns with distinct growth boundaries regulated by physiological and external stressors. Forecasted accelerations in sea-level rise (SLR) will shift the position of these critical boundaries in ways we cannot yet fully predict, but landward migration will be...

A strategy to discover decoy chemokine ligands with an anti-inflammatory activity

Excessive signaling by chemokines has been associated with chronic inflammation or cancer, thus attracting substantial attention as promising therapeutic targets. Inspired by chemokine-clearing molecules shaped by pathogens to escape the immune system, we designed a generic screening assay to discover chemokine neutralizing molecules (neutraligands) and unambiguously distinguish...

Sgf73, a subunit of SAGA complex, is required for the assembly of RITS complex in fission yeast

RNA interference (RNAi) is a widespread gene-silencing mechanism and is required for heterochromatin assembly in a variety of organisms. The RNA-induced transcriptional silencing complex (RITS), composed of Ago1, Tas3 and Chp1, is a key component of RNAi machinery in fission yeast that connects short interference RNA (siRNA) and heterochromatin formation. However, the process by...

Target-Driven Evolution of Scorpion Toxins

It is long known that peptide neurotoxins derived from a diversity of venomous animals evolve by positive selection following gene duplication, yet a force that drives their adaptive evolution remains a mystery. By using maximum-likelihood models of codon substitution, we analyzed molecular adaptation in scorpion sodium channel toxins from a specific species and found ten...

Seismological constraints on the crustal structures generated by continental rejuvenation in northeastern China

Crustal rejuvenation is a key process that has shaped the characteristics of current continental structures and components in tectonic active continental regions. Geological and geochemical observations have provided insights into crustal rejuvenation, although the crustal structural fabrics have not been well constrained. Here, we present a seismic image across the North China...

Efficient mass transport by optical advection

Advection is critical for efficient mass transport. For instance, bare diffusion cannot explain the spatial and temporal scales of some of the cellular processes. The regulation of intracellular functions is strongly influenced by the transport of mass at low Reynolds numbers where viscous drag dominates inertia. Mimicking the efficacy and specificity of the cellular machinery...

Reaching Consensus by Allowing Moments of Indecision

Group decision-making processes often turn into a drawn out and costly battle between two opposing subgroups. Using analytical arguments based on a master equation description of the opinion dynamics occurring in a three-state model of cooperatively interacting units, we show how the capability of a social group to reach consensus can be enhanced when there is an intermediate...

Microfluidic White Organic Light-Emitting Diode Based on Integrated Patterns of Greenish-Blue and Yellow Solvent-Free Liquid Emitters

We demonstrated a novel microfluidic white organic light-emitting diode (microfluidic WOLED) based on integrated sub-100-μm-wide microchannels. Single-μm-thick SU-8-based microchannels, which were sandwiched between indium tin oxide (ITO) anode and cathode pairs, were fabricated by photolithography and heterogeneous bonding technologies. 1-Pyrenebutyric acid 2-ethylhexyl ester...

Biobanking of patient and patient-derived xenograft ovarian tumour tissue: efficient preservation with low and high fetal calf serum based methods

Using patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) for preclinical cancer research demands proper storage of tumour material to facilitate logistics and to reduce the number of animals needed. We successfully established 45 subcutaneous ovarian cancer PDXs, reflecting all histological subtypes, with an overall take rate of 68%. Corresponding cells from mouse replaced human tumour stromal...

Unusual spin dynamics in topological insulators

The dynamic spin susceptibility (DSS) has a ubiquitous Lorentzian form around the Zeeman energy in conventional materials with weak spin orbit coupling, whose spectral width characterizes the spin relaxation rate. We show that DSS has an unusual non-Lorentzian form in topological insulators, which are characterized by strong SOC, and the anisotropy of the DSS reveals the...

Highly Effective Conductance Modulation in Planar Silicene Field Effect Devices Due to Buckling

Silicene is an exciting two-dimensional material that shares many of graphene’s electronic properties, but differs in its structural buckling. This buckling allows opening a bandgap in silicene through the application of a perpendicular electric field. Here we show that this buckling also enables highly effective modulation of silicene’s conductance by means of an in-plane...

Nanowire CdS-CdTe Solar Cells with Molybdenum Oxide as Contact

Using a 10 nm thick molybdenum oxide (MoO3−x) layer as a transparent and low barrier contact to p-CdTe, we demonstrate nanowire CdS-CdTe solar cells with a power conversion efficiency of 11% under front side illumination. Annealing the as-deposited MoO3 film in N2 resulted in a reduction of the cell’s series resistance, from 9.97 Ω/cm2 to 7.69 Ω/cm2, and increase in efficiency...

Pulsed Near-IR Photoresponse in a Bi-metal Contacted Graphene Photodetector

We use an ultra-fast near-infrared pulse coincidence technique to study the time, temperature, and power dependence of the photoresponse of a bi-metal contacted graphene photodetector. We observe two components of the photovoltage signal. One component is gate-voltage dependent, linear in power at room temperature and sub-linear at low temperature-consistent with the hot-electron...

Copper Transport Protein Antioxidant-1 Promotes Inflammatory Neovascularization via Chaperone and Transcription Factor Function

Copper (Cu), an essential micronutrient, plays a fundamental role in inflammation and angiogenesis; however, its precise mechanism remains undefined. Here we uncover a novel role of Cu transport protein Antioxidant-1 (Atox1), which is originally appreciated as a Cu chaperone and recently discovered as a Cu-dependent transcription factor, in inflammatory neovascularization. Atox1...

Antimicrobial activity of iron oxide nanoparticle upon modulation of nanoparticle-bacteria interface

Investigating the interaction patterns at nano-bio interface is a key challenge for safe use of nanoparticles (NPs) to any biological system. The study intends to explore the role of interaction pattern at the iron oxide nanoparticle (IONP)-bacteria interface affecting antimicrobial propensity of IONP. To this end, IONP with magnetite like atomic arrangement and negative surface...

IL-1β promotes Th17 differentiation by inducing alternative splicing of FOXP3

CD4+FOXP3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells are essential for maintaining immunological self-tolerance. Treg cell development and function depend on the transcription factor FOXP3, which is present in several distinct isoforms due to alternative splicing. Despite the importance of FOXP3 in the proper maintenance of Treg cells, the regulation and functional consequences of FOXP3 isoform...

A Nanoparticle-based Sensor Platform for Cell Tracking and Status/Function Assessment

Nanoparticles are increasingly popular choices for labeling and tracking cells in biomedical applications such as cell therapy. However, all current types of nanoparticles fail to provide real-time, noninvasive monitoring of cell status and functions while often generating false positive signals. Herein, a nanosensor platform to track the real-time expression of specific...

Non-alignment stagnation-point flow of a nanofluid past a permeable stretching/shrinking sheet: Buongiorno’s model

The paper deals with a stagnation-point boundary layer flow towards a permeable stretching/shrinking sheet in a nanofluid where the flow and the sheet are not aligned. We used the Buongiorno model that is based on the Brownian diffusion and thermophoresis to describe the nanofluid in this problem. The main purpose of the present paper is to examine whether the non-alignment...

Direct Growth and Controlled Coalescence of Thick AlN Template on Micro-circle Patterned Si Substrate

High-density micro-circle patterned Si substrates were successfully fabricated for the direct overgrowth of thick AlN templates by using NH3 pulsed-flow multilayer AlN growth and epitaxial lateral overgrowth techniques. The experimental results show that an 8-μm-thick AlN template was grown at a very high growth rate on the substrates. The AlN template had full widths at half...