Scientific Reports

http://www.nature.com/srep

List of Papers (Total 41,387)

Autophosphorylation of CaMKK2 generates autonomous activity that is disrupted by a T85S mutation linked to anxiety and bipolar disorder

Mutations that reduce expression or give rise to a Thr85Ser (T85S) mutation of Ca2+-CaM-dependent protein kinase kinase-2 (CaMKK2) have been implicated in behavioural disorders such as anxiety, bipolar and schizophrenia in humans. Here we report that Thr85 is an autophosphorylation site that endows CaMKK2 with a molecular memory that enables sustained autonomous activation...

Mid-infrared Photoconductive Response in AlGaN/GaN Step Quantum Wells

AlGaN/GaN quantum structure is an excellent candidate for high speed infrared detectors based on intersubband transitions. However, fabrication of AlGaN/GaN quantum well infrared detectors suffers from polarization-induced internal electric field, which greatly limits the carrier vertical transport. In this article, a step quantum well is proposed to attempt solving this problem...

Coupling Single Giant Nanocrystal Quantum Dots to the Fundamental Mode of Patch Nanoantennas through Fringe Field

Through single dot spectroscopy and numerical simulation studies, we demonstrate that the fundamental mode of gold patch nanoantennas have fringe-field resonance capable of enhancing the nano-emitters coupled around the edge of the patch antenna. This fringe-field coupling is used to enhance the radiative rates of core/thick-shell nanocrystal quantum dots (g-NQDs) that cannot be...

The C-terminus hot spot region helps in the fibril formation of bacteriophage-associated hyaluronate lyase (HylP2)

The bacteriophage encoded hyaluronate lyases (HylP and HylP2) degrade hyaluronan and other glycosaminoglycans. HylP2 forms a functional fibril under acidic conditions in which its N-terminus is proposed to form the fibrillar core, leading to nucleation and acceleration of fibril formation. Here we report the presence of a hot spot region (A144GVVVY149) towards the carboxy...

Effects of concurrent caffeine and mobile phone exposure on local target probability processing in the human brain

Millions of people use mobile phones (MP) while drinking coffee or other caffeine containing beverages. Little is known about the potential combined effects of MP irradiation and caffeine on cognitive functions. Here we investigated whether caffeine intake and concurrent exposure to Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) MP-like irradiation may interactively influence...

Planting increases the abundance and structure complexity of soil core functional genes relevant to carbon and nitrogen cycling

Plants have an important impact on soil microbial communities and their functions. However, how plants determine the microbial composition and network interactions is still poorly understood. During a four-year field experiment, we investigated the functional gene composition of three types of soils (Phaeozem, Cambisols and Acrisol) under maize planting and bare fallow regimes...

The effects of inhibitory control training for preschoolers on reasoning ability and neural activity

Inhibitory control (including response inhibition and interference control) develops rapidly during the preschool period and is important for early cognitive development. This study aimed to determine the training and transfer effects on response inhibition in young children. Children in the training group (N = 20; 12 boys, mean age 4.87 ± 0.26 years) played “Fruit Ninja” on a...

A top-down approach for fabricating free-standing bio-carbon supercapacitor electrodes with a hierarchical structure

Biomass has delicate hierarchical structures, which inspired us to develop a cost-effective route to prepare electrode materials with rational nanostructures for use in high-performance storage devices. Here, we demonstrate a novel top-down approach for fabricating bio-carbon materials with stable structures and excellent diffusion pathways; this approach is based on...

Dynamic graphene filters for selective gas-water-oil separation

Selective filtration of gas, water, and liquid or gaseous oil is essential to prevent possible environmental pollution and machine/facility malfunction in oil-based industries. Novel materials and structures able to selectively and efficiently filter liquid and vapor in various types of solutions are therefore in continuous demand. Here, we investigate selective gas-water-oil...

Reducing the stress of drug administration: implications for the 3Rs

Restraint in animals is known to cause stress but is used during almost all scientific procedures in rodents, representing a major welfare and scientific issue. Administration of substances, a key part of most scientific procedures, almost always involves physical restraint of the animal. In this study, we developed a method to inject substances to rats using a non-restrained...

Electrospun SF/PLCL nanofibrous membrane: a potential scaffold for retinal progenitor cell proliferation and differentiation

Biocompatible polymer scaffolds are promising as potential carriers for the delivery of retinal progenitor cells (RPCs) in cell replacement therapy for the repair of damaged or diseased retinas. The primary goal of the present study was to investigate the effects of blended electrospun nanofibrous membranes of silk fibroin (SF) and poly(L-lactic acid-co-ε-caprolactone) (PLCL), a...

Down-regulation of microRNA-144 in air pollution-related lung cancer

Air pollution has been classified as a group 1 carcinogen in humans, but the underlying tumourigenic mechanisms remain unclear. In Xuanwei city of Yunnan Province, the lung cancer incidence is among the highest in China, owing to severe air pollution generated by the combustion of smoky coal, providing a unique opportunity to dissect lung carcinogenesis. To identify abnormal...

Enterovirus 71 2C Protein Inhibits NF-κB Activation by Binding to RelA(p65)

Viruses evolve multiple ways to interfere with NF-κB signaling, a key regulator of innate and adaptive immunity. Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is one of primary pathogens that cause hand-foot-mouth disease. Here, we identify RelA(p65) as a novel binding partner for EV71 2C protein from yeast two-hybrid screen. By interaction with IPT domain of p65, 2C reduces the formation of heterodimer...

Leveraging existing data sets to generate new insights into Alzheimer’s disease biology in specific patient subsets

To generate new insights into the biology of Alzheimer’s Disease (AD), we developed methods to combine and reuse a wide variety of existing data sets in new ways. We first identified genes consistently associated with AD in each of four separate expression studies, and confirmed this result using a fifth study. We next developed algorithms to search hundreds of thousands of Gene...

Cryo-EM and the elucidation of new macromolecular structures: Random Conical Tilt revisited

Cryo-Electron Microscopy (cryo-EM) of macromolecular complexes is a fundamental structural biology technique which is expanding at a very fast pace. Key to its success in elucidating the three-dimensional structure of a macromolecular complex, especially of small and non-symmetric ones, is the ability to start from a low resolution map, which is subsequently refined with the...

Introduction of Methyl Groups at C2 and C6 Positions Enhances the Antiangiogenesis Activity of Curcumin

Curcumin has diverse biological activities, but is known to undergo rapid metabolism via reduction of vinylic double bonds and phase II conjugation. To prevent reductive metabolism of curcumin, we introduced a methyl group at both C2 and C6 positions (compound 1) or at the C2 position (compound 2) of curcumin, creating steric hindrance on double bonds against metabolizing enzymes...

An integrated insight into the response of sedimentary microbial communities to heavy metal contamination

Response of biological communities to environmental stresses is a critical issue in ecology, but how microbial communities shift across heavy metal gradients remain unclear. To explore the microbial response to heavy metal contamination (e.g., Cr, Mn, Zn), the composition, structure and functional potential of sedimentary microbial community were investigated by sequencing of 16S...

Fast Episodes of West-Mediterranean-Tyrrhenian Oceanic Opening and Revisited Relations with Tectonic Setting

Extension and calc-alkaline volcanism of the submerged orogen of alpine age (OAA) initiated in Early Oligocene (~33/32 Ma) and reached the stage of oceanic opening in Early-Miocene (Burdigalian), Late-Miocene and Late-Pliocene. In the Burdigalian (~20–16 Ma) period of widespread volcanism of calcalkaline type on the margins of oceanic domain, seafloor spreading originated the...

Influence of impact speed on water droplet erosion of TiAl compared with Ti6Al4V

Water Droplet Erosion (WDE) as a material degradation phenomenon has been a concern in power generation industries for decades. Steam turbine blades and the compressor blades of gas turbines that use water injection usually suffer from WDE. The present work focuses on studying erosion resistance of TiAl as a potential alloy for turbine blades compared to Ti6Al4V, a frequently...

Surface-Engineered Graphene Quantum Dots Incorporated into Polymer Layers for High Performance Organic Photovoltaics

Graphene quantum dots (GQDs), a newly emerging 0-dimensional graphene based material, have been widely exploited in optoelectronic devices due to their tunable optical and electronic properties depending on their functional groups. Moreover, the dispersibility of GQDs in common solvents depending on hydrophobicity or hydrophilicity can be controlled by chemical functionalization...

Statin-activated nuclear receptor PXR promotes SGK2 dephosphorylation by scaffolding PP2C to induce hepatic gluconeogenesis

Statin therapy is known to increase blood glucose levels in humans. Statins utilize pregnane X receptor (PXR) and serum/glucocorticoid regulated kinase 2 (SGK2) to activate phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1 (PEPCK1) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) genes, thereby increasing glucose production in human liver cells. Here, the novel statin/PXR/SGK2-mediated signaling pathway has...

Edges of human embryonic stem cell colonies display distinct mechanical properties and differentiation potential

In order to understand the mechanisms that guide cell fate decisions during early human development, we closely examined the differentiation process in adherent colonies of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). Live imaging of the differentiation process reveals that cells on the outer edge of the undifferentiated colony begin to differentiate first and remain on the perimeter of...

Simultaneous Fluorescence and Phosphorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy in Living Cells

In living cells, there are always a plethora of processes taking place at the same time. Their precise regulation is the basis of cellular functions, since small failures can lead to severe dysfunctions. For a comprehensive understanding of intracellular homeostasis, simultaneous multiparameter detection is a versatile tool for revealing the spatial and temporal interactions of...

Information complementarity: A new paradigm for decoding quantum incompatibility

The existence of observables that are incompatible or not jointly measurable is a characteristic feature of quantum mechanics, which lies at the root of a number of nonclassical phenomena, such as uncertainty relations, wave—particle dual behavior, Bell-inequality violation, and contextuality. However, no intuitive criterion is available for determining the compatibility of even...

Predictive diagnosis of the risk of breast cancer recurrence after surgery by single-particle quantum dot imaging

In breast cancer, the prognosis of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive patients (20–25%) has been dramatically improved by the clinical application of the anti-HER2 antibody drugs trastuzumab and pertuzumab. However, the clinical outcomes of HER2-negative cases with a poor prognosis have not improved, and novel therapeutic antibody drugs or diagnostic...