Scientific Reports

http://www.nature.com/srep

List of Papers (Total 39,023)

Submicron bidirectional all-optical plasmonic switches

Ultra-small all-optical switches are of importance in highly integrated optical communication and computing networks. However, the weak nonlinear light-matter interactions in natural materials present an enormous challenge to realize efficiently switching for the ultra-short interaction lengths. Here, we experimentally demonstrate a submicron bidirectional all-optical plasmonic...

Discovery of some 400 million year-old sensory structures in the compound eyes of trilobites

Fossilised arthropod compound eyes have frequently been described. Among the oldest known are those from the lower Cambrian of the Chengjiang Lagerstätte (China, c 525 Ma). All these compound eyes, though often excellently preserved, however, represent just the outer shells, because soft tissues, or even individual cells, usually do not fossilise. Using modern techniques...

Bed bugs evolved unique adaptive strategy to resist pyrethroid insecticides

Recent advances in genomic and post-genomic technologies have facilitated a genome-wide analysis of the insecticide resistance-associated genes in insects. Through bed bug, Cimex lectularius transcriptome analysis, we identified 14 molecular markers associated with pyrethroid resistance. Our studies revealed that most of the resistance-associated genes functioning in diverse...

Indirect reciprocity is sensitive to costs of information transfer

How natural selection can promote cooperative or altruistic behavior is a fundamental question in biological and social sciences. One of the persuasive mechanisms is "indirect reciprocity," working through reputation: cooperative behavior can prevail because the behavior builds the donor's good reputation and then s/he receives some reciprocal benefits from someone else in the...

The Actinobacterial Colonization of Etruscan Paintings

The paintings from Tomba della Scimmia, in Tuscany, are representative of the heavy bacterial colonization experienced in most Etruscan necropolises. The tomb remained open until the late 70′s when it was closed because of severe deterioration of the walls, ceiling and paintings after decades of visits. The deterioration is the result of environmental changes and impacts suffered...

CancerDR: Cancer Drug Resistance Database

Cancer therapies are limited by the development of drug resistance, and mutations in drug targets is one of the main reasons for developing acquired resistance. The adequate knowledge of these mutations in drug targets would help to design effective personalized therapies. Keeping this in mind, we have developed a database “CancerDR”, which provides information of 148 anti-cancer...

Immunity Against Heterosubtypic Influenza Virus Induced By Adenovirus And MVA Expressing Nucleoprotein And Matrix Protein-1

Alternate prime/boost vaccination regimens employing recombinant replication-deficient adenovirus or MVA, expressing Influenza A virus nucleoprotein and matrix protein 1, induced antigen-specific T cell responses in intradermally (ID) vaccinated mice; with the strongest responses resulting from Ad/MVA immunization. In BALB/C mice the immunodominant response was shifted from the...

High yield production and purification of few layer graphene by Gum Arabic assisted physical sonication

Exploiting the emulsification properties of low cost, environmentally safe Gum Arabic we demonstrate a high yield process to produce a few layer graphene with a low defect ratio, maintaining the pristine graphite structure. In addition, we demonstrate the need for and efficacy of an acid hydrolysis treatment to remove the polymer residues to produce 100% pure graphene. The...

Effects of cold stress and heat stress on coral fluorescence in reef-building corals

Widespread temperature stress has caused catastrophic coral bleaching events that have been devastating for coral reefs. Here, we evaluate whether coral fluorescence could be utilized as a noninvasive assessment for coral health. We conducted cold and heat stress treatments on the branching coral Acropora yongei, and found that green fluorescent protein (GFP) concentration and...

Acoustic Illusion near Boundaries of Arbitrary Curved Geometry

We have proposed a scheme and presented the first experimental demonstration of acoustic illusion, by using anisotropic metamaterials to manipulate the acoustic field near boundaries of arbitrary curved geometry. Numerical simulations and experimental results show that in the presence of an illusion cloak, any object can be acoustically transformed into another object. The...

Soil-type influences human selenium status and underlies widespread selenium deficiency risks in Malawi

Selenium (Se) is an essential human micronutrient with critical roles in immune functioning and antioxidant defence. Estimates of dietary Se intakes and status are scarce for Africa although crop surveys indicate deficiency is probably widespread in Malawi. Here we show that Se deficiency is likely endemic in Malawi based on the Se status of adults consuming food from contrasting...

Reduced acoustic and electric integration in concurrent-vowel recognition

The present study used concurrent-vowel recognition to measure integration efficiency of combined acoustic and electric stimulation in eight actual cochlear-implant subjects who had normal or residual low-frequency acoustic hearing contralaterally. Although these subjects could recognize single vowels (>90% correct) with either electric or combined stimulation, their performance...

Effect of wetting on capillary pumping in microchannels

We investigate capillary pumping in microchannels both experimentally and numerically. Putting two droplets of different sizes at the in/outlet of a microchannel, there will in general be a flow from the smaller droplet to the larger one due to the Laplace pressure difference. We show that an unusual flow from a larger droplet into a smaller one is possible by manipulating the...

Gene network requirements for regulation of metabolic gene expression to a desired state

Gene circuits that control metabolism should restore metabolic functions upon environmental changes. Whether gene networks are capable of steering metabolism to optimal states is an open question. Here we present a method to identify such optimal gene networks. We show that metabolic network optimisation over a range of environments results in an input-output relationship for the...

Efficient high-order harmonic generation boosted by below-threshold harmonics

High-order harmonic generation (HHG) in gases has been established as an important technique for the generation of coherent extreme ultraviolet (XUV) pulses at ultrashort time scales. Its main drawback, however, is the low conversion efficiency, setting limits for many applications, such as ultrafast coherent imaging, nonlinear processes in the XUV range, or seeded free electron...

Porous 3D graphene-based bulk materials with exceptional high surface area and excellent conductivity for supercapacitors

Until now, few sp2 carbon materials simultaneously exhibit superior performance for specific surface area (SSA) and electrical conductivity at bulk state. Thus, it is extremely important to make such materials at bulk scale with those two outstanding properties combined together. Here, we present a simple and green but very efficient approach using two standard and simple...

Graphene-based photovoltaic cells for near-field thermal energy conversion

Thermophotovoltaic devices are energy-conversion systems generating an electric current from the thermal photons radiated by a hot body. While their efficiency is limited in far field by the Schockley-Queisser limit, in near field the heat flux transferred to a photovoltaic cell can be largely enhanced because of the contribution of evanescent photons, in particular for a source...

One-Pot Protocol for Bimetallic Pt/Cu Hexapod Concave Nanocrystals with Enhanced Electrocatalytic Activity

Nanomaterials with particular nanostructures which usually possess special properties always attract considerable attention. A novel bimetallic Pt/Cu hexapod nanostructure was prepared by a facile one-pot strategy. The formation mechanism was investigated by the time sequential evolution experiments and the hexapod concave nanostructures originated from the Pt/Cu rhombic...

Heterogeneous shear elasticity of glasses: the origin of the boson peak

The local elasticity of glasses is known to be inhomogeneous on a microscopic scale compared to that of crystalline materials. Their vibrational spectrum strongly deviates from that expected from Debye's elasticity theory: The density of states deviates from Debye's law, the sound velocity shows a negative dispersion in the boson-peak frequency regime and there is a strong...

ErbB2 Dephosphorylation and Anti-Proliferative Effects of Neuregulin-1 in ErbB2-Overexpressing Cells; Re-evaluation of Their Low-Affinity Interaction

Neuregulin-1 binds to ErbB3 and ErbB4 and regulates cancer proliferation and differentiation. Neuregulin-1 had been suggested to also react with ErbB2, but this argument becomes controversial. Here, we re-evaluated the cellular responses and ErbB2 interaction of neuregulin-1 in ErbB2 overexpressing cell lines. In a competitive ligand-binding assay, we detected significant...

SOXC transcription factors in mantle cell lymphoma: the role of promoter methylation in SOX11 expression

The related transcription factors SOX11, SOX4 and SOX12 (classified as the SOXC family) compete for the same target genes. SOX11 is expressed in most mantle cell lymphomas (MCL) but a small subset is, like normal lymphocytes, SOX11 negative. Here we report the variable expression of SOX4 and high expression of SOX12 in MCL compared to non-malignant tissue. Our results show that...

Semiconductor nanoparticle-based hydrogels prepared via self-initiated polymerization under sunlight, even visible light

Since ancient times, people have used photosynthesized wood, bamboo, and cotton as building and clothing materials. The advantages of photo polymerization include the mild and easy process. However, the direct use of available sunlight for the preparation of materials is still a challenge due to its rather dilute intensity. Here, we show that semiconductor nanoparticles can be...

Systematic repression of transcription factors reveals limited patterns of gene expression changes in ES cells

Networks of transcription factors (TFs) are thought to determine and maintain the identity of cells. Here we systematically repressed each of 100 TFs with shRNA and carried out global gene expression profiling in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. Unexpectedly, only the repression of a handful of TFs significantly affected transcriptomes, which changed in two directions...

Intraovarian transplantation of primordial follicles fails to rescue chemotherapy injured ovaries

Busulfan and cyclophosphamide (B/C)-treated mice exhibited a marked increase in apoptosis and a concomitant decrease in the ovarian weight. Histological and RT-PCR analysis indicate that the period of germ cell depletion in the B/C-treated ovaries coincides with decreased expression of genes Figla, Lhx8, Nobox, c-kit, and Sox3. However, depletion of the ovarian germ cells is...

Bright light exposure reduces TH-positive dopamine neurons: implications of light pollution in Parkinson's disease epidemiology

This study explores the effect of continuous exposure to bright light on neuromelanin formation and dopamine neuron survival in the substantia nigra. Twenty-one days after birth, Sprague–Dawley albino rats were divided into groups and raised under different conditions of light exposure. At the end of the irradiation period, rats were sacrificed and assayed for neuromelanin...