Scientific Reports

http://www.nature.com/srep

List of Papers (Total 41,393)

All-optical differential equation solver with constant-coefficient tunable based on a single microring resonator

Photonic integrated circuits for photonic computing open up the possibility for the realization of ultrahigh-speed and ultra wide-band signal processing with compact size and low power consumption. Differential equations model and govern fundamental physical phenomena and engineering systems in virtually any field of science and engineering, such as temperature diffusion...

Genomic methylation patterns in archaeological barley show de-methylation as a time-dependent diagenetic process

Genomic methylation is variable under biotic and abiotic stresses in plants. In particular, viral infection is thought to significantly increase genomic methylation with particularly high activity around transposable elements. Here we present the genomic methylation profiles of grains of archaeological barley (Hordeum vulgare) from several strata from a site in southern Egypt...

Stress and self-efficacy predict psychological adjustment at diagnosis of prostate cancer

Prostate cancer is the most frequently non-skin cancer diagnosed among men. Diagnosis, a significant burden, generates many challenges which impact on emotional adjustment and so warrants further investigation. Most studies to date however, have been carried out at or post treatment with an emphasis on functional quality of life outcomes. Men recently diagnosed with localised...

Wide-field imaging and flow cytometric analysis of cancer cells in blood by fluorescent nanodiamond labeling and time gating

Nanodiamonds containing high density ensembles of negatively charged nitrogen-vacancy (NV−) centers are promising fluorescent biomarkers due to their excellent photostability and biocompatibility. The NV− centers in the particles have a fluorescence lifetime of up to 20 ns, which distinctly differs from those (<10 ns) of cell and tissue autofluorescence, making it possible to...

Increased leukemia-associated gene expression in benzene-exposed workers

Long-term exposure to benzene causes several adverse health effects, including an increased risk of acute myeloid leukemia. This study was to identify genetic alternations involved in pathogenesis of leukemia in benzene-exposed workers without clinical symptoms of leukemia. This study included 33 shoe-factory workers exposed to benzene at levels from 1 ppm to 10 ppm. These...

Laser Actuation of Cantilevers for Picometre Amplitude Dynamic Force Microscopy

As nanoscale and molecular devices become reality, the ability to probe materials on these scales is increasing in importance. To address this, we have developed a dynamic force microscopy technique where the flexure of the microcantilever is excited using an intensity modulated laser beam to achieve modulation on the picoscale. The flexure arises from thermally induced bending...

Distinguishing between cancer cell differentiation and resistance induced by all-trans retinoic acid using transcriptional profiles and functional pathway analysis

All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) induces differentiation in various cell types and has been investigated extensively for its effective use in cancer prevention and treatment. Relapsed or refractory disease that is resistant to ATRA is a clinically significant problem. To identify the molecular mechanism that bridges ATRA differentiation and resistance in cancer, we selected the...

Multifunctional Interface Modification of Energy Relay Dye in Quasi-solid Dye-sensitized Solar Cells

In this paper, 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-t-butyl-6(1,1,7,7-tetramethyljulolidyl-9-enyl)-4H-pyran (DCJTB) has been used in interface modification of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) with combined effects of retarding charge recombination and Förster resonant energy transfer (FRET). DCJTB interface modification significantly improved photovoltaic performance of DSCs. I–V curves shows...

Inhibition of cytomegalovirus infection and photothermolysis of infected cells using bioconjugated gold nanoparticles

Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a herpesvirus that causes major health problems in neonates as well as in immunocompromised individuals1. At present, a vaccine is not available for CMV infection and the available antiviral drugs suffer from toxicity, poor efficacy and resistance1,2. Here, we chemically conjugated a monoclonal antibody raised against CMV surface glycoprotein (gB...

Clinical implication of changes in serum adiponectin in patients with hepatogenic diabetes

Adiponectin is a protein hormone that modulates glucose metabolism and fatty acid oxidation. We explored the clinical implication of serum adiponectin in hepatogenic diabetes. Serum adiponectin levels were determined using enzyme–linked immunochemistry assay in 78 individuals including 19 hepatogenic diabetes, 20 type 2 diabetes (T2D), 20 chronic liver disease and 19 healthy...

EGR1 decreases the malignancy of human non-small cell lung carcinoma by regulating KRT18 expression

Early growth response 1 (EGR1) is a multifunctional transcription factor; Positive and negative functions of EGR1 in various tumors rely on the integrated functions of various genes it regulates. In this study, we observed the role of EGR1 in non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) and identified genes that influence cell fate and tumor development. Various assays showed that EGR1...

Growth arrest and forced differentiation of human primary glioblastoma multiforme by a novel small molecule

Glioblastoma multiforme is the most common malignant brain tumor in adults, with an average survival of less than one year due to its resistance to therapy. Recent studies reported that GBM initiates from CD133-expressing cancer stem cells (CSC). However, the efficacy of CSC targeting is limited. A newly developed approach in cancer treatment is the forced differentiation of...

How congestion shapes cities: from mobility patterns to scaling

The recent availability of data for cities has allowed scientists to exhibit scalings which present themselves in the form of a power-law dependence on population of various socio-economical and structural indicators. We propose here a stochastic theory of urban growth which accounts for some of the observed scalings and we confirm these predictions on US and OECD empirical data...

Combining colour and temperature: A blue object is more likely to be judged as warm than a red object

It is commonly believed that reddish colour induces warm feelings while bluish colour induces cold feelings. We, however, demonstrate an opposite effect when the temperature information is acquired by direct touch. Experiment 1 found that a red object, relative to a blue object, raises the lowest temperature required for an object to feel warm, indicating that a blue object is...

Fetal and adult fibroblasts display intrinsic differences in tendon tissue engineering and regeneration

Injured adult tendons do not exhibit optimal healing through a regenerative process, whereas fetal tendons can heal in a regenerative fashion without scar formation. Hence, we compared FFs (mouse fetal fibroblasts) and AFs (mouse adult fibroblasts) as seed cells for the fabrication of scaffold-free engineered tendons. Our results demonstrated that FFs had more potential for...

Cellulose Nanofiber Paper as an Ultra Flexible Nonvolatile Memory

On the development of flexible electronics, a highly flexible nonvolatile memory, which is an important circuit component for the portability, is necessary. However, the flexibility of existing nonvolatile memory has been limited, e.g. the smallest radius into which can be bent has been millimeters range, due to the difficulty in maintaining memory properties while bending. Here...

Mechanical Resonances of Helically Coiled Carbon Nanowires

Despite their wide spread applications, the mechanical behavior of helically coiled structures has evaded an accurate understanding at any length scale (nano to macro) mainly due to their geometrical complexity. The advent of helically coiled micro/nanoscale structures in nano-robotics, nano-inductors, and impact protection coatings has necessitated the development of new...

Preparing two-dimensional microporous carbon from Pistachio nutshell with high areal capacitance as supercapacitor materials

Two-dimensional (2D) porous carbon AC-SPN-3 possessing of amazing high micropore volume ratio of 83% and large surface area of about 1069 m2 g−1 is high-yield obtained by pyrolysis of natural waste Pistachio nutshells with KOH activation. The AC-SPN-3 has a curved 2D lamellar morphology with the thickness of each slice about 200 nm. The porous carbon is consists of highly...

Realizing Synchronous Energy Harvesting and Ion Separation with Graphene Oxide Membranes

A synchronous ion separation and electricity generation process has been developed using G-O membranes. In addition to the size effect proposed prevsiouly, the separation of ions can be attributed to the different interactions between ions and G-O membranes; the generation of electricity is due to the confinement of G-O membranes, and the mobility difference of ions. Efficient...

PPARα-independent actions of omega-3 PUFAs contribute to their beneficial effects on adiposity and glucose homeostasis

Excess dietary lipid generally leads to fat deposition and impaired glucose homeostasis, but consumption of fish oil (FO) alleviates many of these detrimental effects. The beneficial effects of FO are thought to be mediated largely via activation of the nuclear receptor peroxisomal-proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) by omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and the resulting...

NF-κB-to-AP-1 Switch: A Mechanism Regulating Transition From Endothelial Barrier Injury to Repair in Endotoxemic Mice

Endothelial barrier disruption is a hallmark of multiple organ injury (MOI). However, mechanisms governing the restoration of endothelial barrier function are poorly understood. Here, we uncovered an NF-κB-to-AP-1 switch that regulates the transition from barrier injury to repair following endotoxemic MOI. Endothelial NF-κB mediates barrier repair by inhibiting endothelial cell...

Tumor regression achieved by encapsulating a moderately soluble drug into a polymeric thermogel

For cancer chemotherapy, a tumor regression without any surgical resection and severe side effects is greatly preferred to merely slowing down the growth of tumors. Here, we report a formulation composed of irinotecan (IRN) and poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide)-b-poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA-PEG-PLGA). IRN is a clinically used antitumor drug with...

Multi-color broadband visible light source via GaN hexagonal annular structure

Multi-color and broadband visible emission was realized thorough the hexagonal annular structure of GaN. The annular structure fabricated by selective-area growth emitted purple, blue and green color-emission from the multi-facets. The hexagonal annular structure provided various sidewalls of {101} and {112} semi-polar facets, and (0001) polar facet. From the cathodoluminescence...

Graphene-protected copper and silver plasmonics

Plasmonics has established itself as a branch of physics which promises to revolutionize data processing, improve photovoltaics, and increase sensitivity of bio-detection. A widespread use of plasmonic devices is notably hindered by high losses and the absence of stable and inexpensive metal films suitable for plasmonic applications. To this end, there has been a continuous...

Warming climate extends dryness-controlled areas of terrestrial carbon sequestration

At biome-scale, terrestrial carbon uptake is controlled mainly by weather variability. Observational data from a global monitoring network indicate that the sensitivity of terrestrial carbon sequestration to mean annual temperature (T) breaks down at a threshold value of 16°C, above which terrestrial CO2 fluxes are controlled by dryness rather than temperature. Here we show that...