Scientific Reports

http://www.nature.com/srep

List of Papers (Total 39,027)

Early and Pre-Clinical Detection of Prion Seeding Activity in Cerebrospinal Fluid of Goats using Real-Time Quaking-Induced Conversion Assay

Since 2005, two cases of natural bovine spongiform encephalopathies (BSE) have been reported in goats. Furthermore, experimental transmissions of classical (C-BSE) and atypical (L-BSE) forms of BSE in goats were also reported. To minimize further spreading of prion diseases in small ruminants the development of a highly sensitive and specific test for ante-mortem detection of...

Metformin acutely lowers blood glucose levels by inhibition of intestinal glucose transport

Metformin is currently the most prescribed drug for treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus in humans. It has been well established that long-term treatment with metformin improves glucose tolerance in mice by inhibiting hepatic gluconeogenesis. Interestingly, a single dose of orally administered metformin acutely lowers blood glucose levels, however, little is known about the...

Delivery of pancreatic digestive enzymes into the gastrointestinal tract by pancreatic exocrine tissue transplant

Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, caused by disease-induced loss of pancreatic exocrine cells, may be treated through regenerative stem cell technologies that facilitate the production of pancreatic exocrine cells from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). However, delivering the digestive enzymes produced in the transplanted cells to the gastrointestinal tract remains a...

Endoluminal radiofrequency ablation of the main pancreatic duct is a secure and effective method to produce pancreatic atrophy and to achieve stump closure

Radiofrequency energy has been used both experimentally and clinically to manage the pancreatic remnant after distal pancreatectomies. Our goal was to determine whether endoluminal radiofrequency (RF) ablation of the main pancreatic duct in large animals would be more efficient than glue occlusion as an exocrine pancreatic atrophy-inducing procedure. Thirty-four Landrace pigs...

Collagen XXV promotes myoblast fusion during myogenic differentiation and muscle formation

Fusion of myoblasts into multinucleated myofibers is crucial for skeletal muscle development and regeneration. However, the mechanisms controlling this process remain to be determined. Here we identified the involvement of a new extracellular matrix protein in myoblast fusion. Collagen XXV is a transmembrane-type collagen highly transcribed during early myogenesis when primary...

microRNA-155 inhibition restores Fibroblast Growth Factor 7 expression in diabetic skin and decreases wound inflammation

Treatment for chronic diabetic foot ulcers is limited by the inability to simultaneously address the excessive inflammation and impaired re-epithelization and remodeling. Impaired re-epithelization leads to significantly delayed wound closure and excessive inflammation causes tissue destruction, both enhancing wound pathogen colonization. Among many differentially expressed...

Broadband MIR harvester using silicon nanostructures

In this work, we propose an all-silicon-based super absorber in the mid infrared (MIR) spectral range. The presented structures are composed of n-doped silicon nanoparticles or nanowires embedded in intrinsic silicon. An intense absorption peak is observed and could be tuned across the MIR range. While nanoparticles give a single broad absorption peak, the nanowires structure...

Ability of bifidobacteria to metabolize chitin-glucan and its impact on the gut microbiota

Chitin-glucan (CG) represents a natural carbohydrate source for certain microbial inhabitants of the human gut and may act as a prebiotic for a number of bacterial taxa. However, the bifidogenic activity of this substrate is still unknown. In the current study, we evaluated the ability of chitin-glucan to influence growth of 100 bifidobacterial strains belonging to those species...

Brain-transportable dipeptides across the blood-brain barrier in mice

Apart from nutrients required for the brain, there has been no report that naturally occurring peptides can cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The aim of this study was to identify the BBB-transportable peptides using in situ mouse perfusion experiments. Based on the structural features of Gly-N-methylated Gly (Gly-Sar), a reported BBB-transportable compound, 18 dipeptides were...

Fabrication and characterization of zeolitic imidazolate framework-embedded cellulose acetate membranes for osmotically driven membrane process

Zeolitic imidazolate framework-302 (ZIF-302)-embedded cellulose acetate (CA) membranes for osmotic driven membrane process (ODMPs) were fabricated using the phase inversion method. We investigated the effects of different fractions of ZIF-302 in the CA membrane to understand their influence on ODMPs performance. Osmotic water transport was evaluated using different draw solution...

ETV5 links the FGFR3 and Hippo signalling pathways in bladder cancer

Activating mutations of fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) are common in urothelial carcinoma of the bladder (UC). Silencing or inhibition of mutant FGFR3 in bladder cancer cell lines is associated with decreased malignant potential, confirming its important driver role in UC. However, understanding of how FGFR3 activation drives urothelial malignant transformation...

The asymmetry of plasma membranes and their cholesterol content influence the uptake of cisplatin

The composition of the plasma membrane of malignant cells is thought to influence the cellular uptake of cisplatin and to take part in developing resistance to this widespread anti-cancer drug. In this work we study the permeation of cisplatin through the model membranes of normal and cancer cells using molecular dynamics simulations. A special attention is paid to lipid...

Supervised machine learning of ultracold atoms with speckle disorder

We analyze how accurately supervised machine learning techniques can predict the lowest energy levels of one-dimensional noninteracting ultracold atoms subject to the correlated disorder due to an optical speckle field. Deep neural networks with different numbers of hidden layers and neurons per layer are trained on large sets of instances of the speckle field, whose energy...

Personalized repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation temporarily alters default mode network in healthy subjects

High frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (HF-rTMS) delivered to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) is an effective treatment option for treatment resistant depression. However, the underlying mechanisms of a full session of HF-rTMS in healthy volunteers have not yet been described. Here we investigated, with a personalized selection of DLPFC...

Warm hole in Pacific Arctic sea ice cover forced mid-latitude Northern Hemisphere cooling during winter 2017–18

In North America and Asia, extreme cold weather characterized the winter of 2017–18. At the same time, the Pacific, the Bering Sea, and the Atlantic Arctic regions experienced anomalously low sea ice extent in the early winter. The jet stream dividing cold Arctic air from warm air deviated from normal zonal patterns northward into the ice-free areas north of the Bering Strait...

Optimization of the adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell delivery time for radiation-induced lung fibrosis treatment in rats

The present study attempts to identify the optimal time duration for the administration of Ad-MSCs, in order to maximize its therapeutic benefits, and compare the degree of fibrosis among three different administration time points using the RILF rat model system. Ad-MSCs were delivered to Sprague-Dawley rats through the tail vein at the following different time points after...

Group size effects and critical mass in public goods games

Understanding whether the size of the interacting group has an effect on cooperative behavior has been a major topic of debate since the seminal works on cooperation in the 1960s. Half a century later, scholars have yet to reach a consensus, with some arguing that cooperation is harder in larger groups, while others that cooperation is easier in larger groups, and yet others that...

Potassium doping increases biochar carbon sequestration potential by 45%, facilitating decoupling of carbon sequestration from soil improvement

Negative emissions technologies offer an important tool to limit the global warming to <2 °C. Biochar is one of only a few such technologies, and the one at highest technology readiness level. Here we show that potassium as a low-concentration additive in biochar production can increase biochar’s carbon sequestration potential; by up to 45% in this study. This translates to an...

Fabrication of inclined non-symmetrical periodic micro-structures using Direct Laser Interference Patterning

The direct fabrication of microstructures, having a non-symmetrical morphology with controllable inclination, presents nowadays a challenging task. Natural examples of surfaces with inclined topographies have shown to provide anisotropic functionalities, which have attracted the interest of several researchers in the last years. This work presents a microfabrication technique for...

Sequential, but not Concurrent, Incubation of Cathepsin K and L with Type I Collagen Results in Extended Proteolysis

Degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM) during tendinopathy is, in part, mediated by the collagenolytic cathepsin K (catK) and cathepsin L (catL), with a temporal component to their activity. The objective of this study was to determine how catK and catL act in concert or in conflict to degrade collagen and tendon ECM during tissue degeneration. To do so, type I collagen gels...

3D-QSAR, Docking, ADME/Tox studies on Flavone analogs reveal anticancer activity through Tankyrase inhibition

Flavones are known as an inhibitor of tankyrase, a potential drug target of cancer. We here expedited the use of different computational approaches and presented a fast, easy, cost-effective and high throughput screening method to identify flavones analogs as potential tankyrase inhibitors. For this, we developed a field point based (3D-QSAR) quantitative structure-activity...

Synthesis and characterization of polylactide/rice husk hydrochar composite

Polymer composites are fabricated by incorporating fillers into a polymer matrix. The intent for addition of fillers is to improve the physical, mechanical, chemical and rheological properties of the composite. This study reports on a unique polymer composite using hydrochar, synthesised by microwave-assisted hydrothermal carbonization of rice husk, as filler in polylactide...

Comparison of recombinant and urinary follicle-stimulating hormones over 2000 gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist cycles: a retrospective study

The objective of this paper was to compare the effect of recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone (rFSH) and urinary follicle-stimulating hormone (uFSH) on pregnancy rates and live birth rates with the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist protocol in China. This retrospective study was conducted from January 2014 through August 2017. Patients treated with uFSH had...