Scientific Reports

http://www.nature.com/srep

List of Papers (Total 35,214)

Extracellular vesicles are associated with the systemic inflammation of patients with seropositive rheumatoid arthritis

Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and autoantibodies, such as rheumatoid factor and those against cyclic citrullinated peptides, are designated as seropositive and have a more severe disease with worse prognosis than seronegative RA patients. Understanding the factors that participate in systemic inflammation, in addition to articular commitment, would allow better...

Ninjurin1 Plays a Crucial Role in Pulmonary Fibrosis by Promoting Interaction between Macrophages and Alveolar Epithelial Cells

The transmembrane nerve injury-induced protein 1 (Ninjurin1 or Ninj1) is involved in progressing inflammatory diseases. In this study, we aimed to investigate a novel function of Ninj1 in pulmonary fibrosis. We found that the expression of Ninj1 in a patient cohort was upregulated in the lung specimens of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis patients as well as mice with bleomycin...

The proton and metal binding sites responsible for the pH-dependent green-red bioluminescence color tuning in firefly luciferases

Firefly luciferases produce yellow-green light under physiological and alkaline conditions, however at acidic pH, higher temperatures or in the presence of heavy metals the color changes to red, a property called pH-sensitivity. Despite many decades of studies, the proton and metal binding sites responsible for pH-sensitivity remain enigmatic. Previously we suggested that the...

Variation in plant functional groups indicates land degradation on the Tibetan Plateau

Plant functional groups (PFGs) have been increasingly introduced in land degradation (LD) studies; however, it is unclear whether PFGs can indicate LD. Here, we selected five different degraded lands (i.e., pristine and, lightly, moderately, seriously and extremely degraded) higher than 4650 m on the Tibetan Plateau. In addition, we investigated floristic metrics (i.e...

Spatiotemporal clustering of cases of Kawasaki disease and associated coronary artery aneurysms in Canada

Detailed epidemiologic examination of the distribution of Kawasaki disease (KD) cases could help elucidate the etiology and pathogenesis of this puzzling condition. Location of residence at KD admission was obtained for patients diagnosed in Canada (excluding Quebec) between March 2004 and March 2015. We identified 4,839 patients, 164 of whom (3.4%) developed a coronary artery...

Image-based promoter prediction: a promoter prediction method based on evolutionarily generated patterns

Prediction of promoter regions is crucial for studying gene function and regulation. The well-accepted position weight matrix method for this purpose relies on predefined motifs, which would hinder application across different species. Here, we introduce image-based promoter prediction (IBPP) as a method that creates an “image” from training promoter sequences using an...

Phosphorylation of nuclear Tau is modulated by distinct cellular pathways

Post-translational protein modification controls the function of Tau as a scaffold protein linking a variety of molecular partners. This is most studied in the context of microtubules, where Tau regulates their stability as well as the distribution of cellular components to defined compartments. However, Tau is also located in the cell nucleus; and is found to protect DNA...

Patterns of wild carnivore attacks on humans in urban areas

Attacks by wild carnivores on humans represent an increasing problem in urban areas across North America and their frequency is expected to rise following urban expansion towards carnivore habitats. Here, we analyzed records of carnivore attacks on humans in urban areas of the U.S. and Canada between 1980 and 2016 to analyze the general patterns of the attacks, as well as...

DPTIP, a newly identified potent brain penetrant neutral sphingomyelinase 2 inhibitor, regulates astrocyte-peripheral immune communication following brain inflammation

Brain injury and inflammation induces a local release of extracellular vesicles (EVs) from astrocytes carrying proteins, RNAs, and microRNAs into the circulation. When these vesicles reach the liver, they stimulate the secretion of cytokines that mobilize peripheral immune cell infiltration into the brain, which can cause secondary tissue damage and impair recovery. Recent...

Exploration of potential risks of Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China Using Geographically Weighted Regression Model

To quantify the associations between the spatial characteristics of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) epidemic and meteorological factors (average temperature (AT), relative humidity (RH), average pressure (AP), average wind speed (AW) and average rainfall (AR)), child population density (CPD) and Per capita GDP (GDP) in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China, and to detect...

Thrombin generation during a regular menstrual cycle in women with von Willebrand disease

Fluctuations of the sex steroids during the menstrual cycle might significantly influence hemostasis. This association, derived from a number of the observations on healthy women, is yet to be described in females affected by bleeding disorders. The aim of the current study was to assess the changes in hemostatic variables in women with vWD during two phases of the menstrual...

Minimising oxygen contamination through a liquid copper-aided group IV metal production process

This paper demonstrates for the first time the fabrication of Zr-Cu alloy ingots from a Hf- free ZrO2 precursor in a molten CaCl2 medium to recover nuclear-grade Zr. The reduction of ZrO2 in the presence of CaO was accelerated by the formation of Ca metal in the intermediate stage of the process. Tests conducted with various amounts of ZrO2 indicate that the ZrO2 was reduced to...

A Vaccine Based on a Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara Vector Expressing Zika Virus Structural Proteins Controls Zika Virus Replication in Mice

Zika virus (ZIKV) is a re-emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus that affects humans and can cause severe neurological complications, including Guillain-Barré syndrome and microcephaly. Since 2007 there have been three large outbreaks; the last and larger spread in the Americas in 2015. Actually, ZIKV is circulating in the Americas, Southeast Asia, and the Pacific Islands, and...

Neurofilament heavy polypeptide protects against reduction in synaptopodin expression and prevents podocyte detachment

Podocytes are highly specialized cells that line the glomerulus of the kidney and play a role in filtration. Podocyte injury plays a critical role in the development of many kidney diseases, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we identified that neurofilament heavy polypeptide (NEFH), an intermediate filament component, protects podocyte from injury. We...

Evaluation of Dynamic Tumor-tracking Intensity-modulated Radiotherapy for Locally Advanced Pancreatic Cancer

Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) is now regarded as an important treatment option for patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC). To reduce the underlying tumor motions and dosimetric errors during IMRT as well as the burden of respiratory management for patients, we started to apply a new treatment platform of the dynamic tumor dynamic tumor-tracking...

Trends and regional variations in the administrative prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder among children and adolescents in Germany

There is a controversy regarding temporal trends in prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Using nationwide claims data containing data for approximately six million statutory health insured children we aimed to examine a) trends of ADHD administrative prevalence during 2009–2016; b) regional variations in prevalence, and c) factors associated with an...

Low-level light therapy reduces platelet destruction during extracorporeal circulation

Extracorporeal circulation causes many deleterious effects on blood cells. Low-level light therapy (LLLT) in the red/near-infrared spectral range is known for its cytoprotective properties but its use during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) has not yet been studied. We aimed to assess whether LLLT protects platelets during CPB. 24 pigs were connected to 1-hour-CPB and observed for...

Unique, Intersecting, and Overlapping Roles of C/EBP β and CREB in Cells of the Innate Immune System

CREB and C/EBP β signaling pathways are modulated during inflammation and also targeted by Bacillus anthracis edema toxin (ET), but how these factors individually and jointly contribute to changes in immune cell function is poorly understood. Using CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing, macrophage cell lines lacking CREB and isoforms of C/EBP β were generated and analyzed for changes in...

Transcriptomic changes with increasing algal symbiont reveal the detailed process underlying establishment of coral-algal symbiosis

To clarify the establishment process of coral-algal symbiotic relationships, coral transcriptome changes during increasing algal symbiont densities were examined in juvenile corals following inoculation with the algae Symbiodinium goreaui (clade C) and S. trenchii (clade D), and comparison of their transcriptomes with aposymbiotic corals by RNA-sequencing. Since Symbiodinium...

A novel adiposity index as an integrated predictor of cardiometabolic disease morbidity and mortality

We propose a new anthropometric index, weight-adjusted-waist index (WWI), to assess adiposity by standardizing waist circumference (WC) for weight. WWI, calculated as WC (cm) divided by the square root of weight (kg) (cm/√kg), was measured from 465,629 subjects in the Korean nationwide cohort (2008–2013). Cox regression analysis was used to compare WWI with BMI, WC, waist-to...

Collective antiskyrmion-mediated phase transition and defect-induced melting in chiral magnetic films

Magnetic phase transitions are a manifestation of competing interactions whose behavior is critically modified by defects and becomes even more complex when topological constraints are involved. In particular, the investigation of skyrmions and skyrmion lattices offers insight into fundamental processes of topological-charge creation and annihilation upon changing the magnetic...

Analysis of the Genome and Metabolome of Marine Myxobacteria Reveals High Potential for Biosynthesis of Novel Specialized Metabolites

Comparative genomic/metabolomic analysis is a powerful tool to disclose the potential of microbes for the biosynthesis of novel specialized metabolites. In the group of marine myxobacteria only a limited number of isolated species and sequenced genomes is so far available. However, the few compounds isolated thereof so far show interesting bioactivities and even novel chemical...

Targeting CD40 enhances antibody- and CD8-mediated protection against respiratory syncytial virus infection

Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) infects almost all children under the age of one and is the leading cause of hospitalization among infants. Despite several decades of research with dozens of candidate vaccines being vigorously evaluated in pre-clinical and clinical studies, there is no licensed vaccine available to date. Here, the RSV fusion protein (F) was fused with CD40...

Super-resolution imaging using nano-bells

In this paper we demonstrate a new scheme for optical super-resolution, inspired, in-part, by PALM and STORM. In this scheme each object in the field of view is tagged with a signal that allows them to be detected separately. By doing this we can identify and locate each object separately with significantly higher resolution than the diffraction limit. We demonstrate this by...