Scientific Reports

http://www.nature.com/srep

List of Papers (Total 39,027)

Nest usurpation: a specialised hunting strategy used to overcome dangerous spider prey

Hunting other predators is dangerous, as the tables can turn and the hunter may become the hunted. Specialized araneophagic (spider eating) predators have evolved intriguing hunting strategies that allow them to invade spiders’ webs by adopting a stealthy approach or using aggressive mimicry. Here, we present a newly discovered, specialized hunting strategy of the araneophagic...

UV plasmonic properties of colloidal liquid-metal eutectic gallium-indium alloy nanoparticles

Nanoparticles made of non-noble metals such as gallium have recently attracted significant attention due to promising applications in UV plasmonics. To date, experiments have mostly focused on solid and liquid pure gallium particles immobilized on solid substrates. However, for many applications, colloidal liquid-metal nanoparticle solutions are vital. Here, we experimentally...

Multifunctional Gold Nanoparticles Overcome MicroRNA Regulatory Network Mediated-Multidrug Resistant Leukemia

Resistance to chemotherapy and molecularly targeted therapies is a major problem in current leukemia treatments. Here, we investigated cross-talk between the miR-221 network and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in doxorubicin-induced drug resistance of leukemia cells. Multifunctional gold nanoparticles were designed and synthesized to co-deliver three anticancer agents, AS1411, doxorubicin...

Different Niemann-Pick C1 Genotypes Generate Protein Phenotypes that Vary in their Intracellular Processing, Trafficking and Localization

Niemann-Pick Type C (NP-C) is an inherited neurovisceral lysosomal storage disease characterized by a defect in the trafficking of endocytosed cholesterol. In 95% of patients the gene encoding NPC1 is affected. The correlation of the genetic background in NP-C with the clinical phenotype such as, severity and onset of liver dysfunction, ataxia, dystonia and vertical gaze palsy...

Single injection of sustained-release prostacyclin analog ONO-1301-MS ameliorates hypoxic toxicity in the murine model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by several pathologies including oxidative stress, apoptosis, neuroinflammation, and glutamate toxicity. Although multiple reports suggest that ischemia and hypoxia in the spinal cord plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of ALS, the precise role of hypoxia in disease progression...

Stimulation of noradrenergic transmission by reboxetine is beneficial for a mouse model of progressive parkinsonism

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder and is characterized by motor deficits such as tremor, rigidity and bradykinesia. These symptoms are directly caused by the loss of dopaminergic neurons. However, a wealth of clinical evidence indicates that the dopaminergic system is not the only system affected in PD. Postmortem studies of brains from...

A Fully Automated System Using A Convolutional Neural Network to Predict Renal Allograft Rejection: Extra-validation with Giga-pixel Immunostained Slides

Pathologic diagnoses mainly depend on visual scoring by pathologists, a process that can be time-consuming, laborious, and susceptible to inter- and/or intra-observer variations. This study proposes a novel method to enhance pathologic scoring of renal allograft rejection. A fully automated system using a convolutional neural network (CNN) was developed to identify regions of...

Synergistic improvement in spring maize yield and quality with micro/nanobubbles water oxygation

Soil oxygen shortages in root areas have negative effects on crop growth and decrease crops yield and quality, and soil hypoxia conditions will be aggravated by application of subsurface drip irrigation (SDI). A two-year field experiment was conducted to evaluate the response of maize to micro/nanobubbles oxygation (MNBO) at three dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations (10, 20 and...

Should the outcome of focal photocoagulation for center-sparing diabetic macular edema require expanding the definition of center involvement?

Photocoagulation may still be a therapeutic choice for center-sparing diabetic macular edema. We compared the visual evolution after photocoagulation, in eyes with focal diabetic macular edema, stratified per the location of thickening with optical coherence tomography. We evaluated people with type 2 diabetes and focal diabetic macular edema, before and three weeks after focal...

Development of model web-server for crop variety identification using throughput SNP genotyping data

Crop varieties or genotypes of a given species are pivotal for agricultural production and ownership, management and improvement of their germplasm is a great challenge. Its morphological identification requires time, cost and descriptors are often compromised statistically due to phenotypic plasticity. Development of DNA based signature of varieties can overcome these...

Homoclinic and Heteroclinic Orbits in Climbing Cucumber Tendrils

Many biomaterials utilize chiral growth to imitate biological functions. A prominent example can be found in growing cucumbers, which use tendrils as winding support for both fixation and climbing. A number of tendril-mimicking materials and artificial plant-like mechanical machines have been developed to imitate tendril deformation. However, tendrils tend to not only show spiral...

Alternative reproductive adaptations predict asymmetric responses to climate change in lizards

Anthropogenic climate change ranks among the major global-scale threats to modern biodiversity. Extinction risks are known to increase via the interactions between rapid climatic alterations and environmentally-sensitive species traits that fail to adapt to those changes. Accumulating evidence reveals the influence of ecophysiological, ecological and phenological factors as...

A New Network Feature Affects the Intervention Performance on Public Opinion Dynamic Networks

The neighborhood network structure plays an important role in the collective opinion of an opinion dynamic system. Does it also affect the intervention performance? To answer this question, we apply three intervention methods on an opinion dynamic model, the weighted DeGroot model, to change the convergent opinion value \(\bar{x}\). And we define a new network feature Ω, called...

Sensitivity of speleothem records in the Indian Summer Monsoon region to dry season infiltration

In climates with strongly seasonal rainfall, speleothem-based paleoclimate reconstructions are often thought to reflect wet season conditions, assuming a bias toward the season with greater water supply. This is particularly true in monsoon regions, where speleothem records are interpreted to document monsoon strength changes on multiple timescales. Dry season infiltration...

Automated identification of flagella from videomicroscopy via the medial axis transform

Ubiquitous in eukaryotic organisms, the flagellum is a well-studied organelle that is well-known to be responsible for motility in a variety of organisms. Commonly necessitated in their study is the capability to image and subsequently track the movement of one or more flagella using videomicroscopy, requiring digital isolation and location of the flagellum within a sequence of...

Caveolin 1 is Associated with Upregulated Claudin 2 in Necrotizing Enterocolitis

Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a devastating gastrointestinal emergency of neonates. Epithelial tight junction (TJ) proteins, such as claudins, are essential for regulation and function of the intestinal barrier. Rho kinase (ROCK) affects cellular permeability and TJ regulation. We hypothesized that TJ protein changes would correlate with increased permeability in...

Noninvasive monitoring of blood flow using a single magnetic microsphere

Noninvasive medical imaging of blood flow relies on mapping the transit of a contrast medium bolus injected intravenously. This has the draw-back that the front of the bolus widens until the tissue of interest is reached and quantitative flow parameters are not easy to obtain. Here, we introduce high resolution (millimeter/millisecond) 3D magnetic tracking of a single microsphere...

Honey bee colony performance and health are enhanced by apiary proximity to US Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) lands

Honey bee colony performance and health are intimately linked to the foraging environment. Recent evidence suggests that the US Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) has a positive impact on environmental suitability for supporting honey bee apiaries. However, relatively little is known about the influence of habitat conservation efforts on honey bee colony health. Identifying...

Huge decrease of frost frequency in the Mont-Blanc Massif under climate change

Mountains are a sensitive indicator of climate change and these areas are an early glimpse of what could happen in lowland environments. Peaking at 4808 m asl, the Mont-Blanc summit, at the boundary between France and Italy, is the highest of the Alps, in Western Europe. Its Massif is world-famous for outdoor and extreme sport activities, especially since the 1924 Olympic games...

Development and Validation of Nomograms for Malignancy Prediction in Soft Tissue Tumors Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging Measurements

The objective of this study was to develop, validate, and compare nomograms for malignancy prediction in soft tissue tumors (STTs) using conventional and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measurements. Between May 2011 and December 2016, 239 MRI examinations from 236 patients with pathologically proven STTs were included retrospectively and assigned randomly to...

Single-trial classification of awareness state during anesthesia by measuring critical dynamics of global brain activity

In daily life, in the operating room and in the laboratory, the operational way to assess wakefulness and consciousness is through responsiveness. A number of studies suggest that the awake, conscious state is not the default behavior of an assembly of neurons, but rather a very special state of activity that has to be actively maintained and curated to support its functional...

Dysregulated Redox Regulation Contributes to Nuclear EGFR Localization and Pathogenicity in Lung Cancer

Lung cancers are frequently characterized by inappropriate activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-dependent signaling and epigenetic silencing of the NADPH oxidase (NOX) enzyme DUOX1, both potentially contributing to worse prognosis. Based on previous findings linking DUOX1 with redox-dependent EGFR activation, the present studies were designed to evaluate whether...

Mathematical modelling of the impact of treating latent tuberculosis infection in the elderly in a city with intermediate tuberculosis burden

Hong Kong is a high-income city with intermediate tuberculosis (TB) burden primarily driven by endogenous reactivations. A high proportion of remote latently infected people, particularly elderly, hinders the effectiveness of current strategies focusing on passive TB detection. In this study, we developed a mathematical model to evaluate the impact of treating latent TB infection...

A new approach for analyzing an adhesive bacterial protein in the mouse gastrointestinal tract using optical tissue clearing

Several bacterial moonlighting proteins act as adhesion factors, which are important for bacterial colonization of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. However, little is known about the adherence properties of moonlighting proteins in the GI tract. Here, we describe a new approach for visualizing the localization of moonlighting protein-coated fluorescent microbeads in the whole GI...

Hygiene and biosecurity protocols reduce infection prevalence but do not improve fledging success in an endangered parrot

Emerging Infectious Diseases (EIDs) are recognised as global extinction drivers of threatened species. Unfortunately, biodiversity managers have few tested solutions to manage them when often the desperate need for solutions necessitates a response. Here we test in situ biosecurity protocols to assess the efficacy of managing Psittacine beak and feather disease (PBFD), one of the...