Scientific Reports

http://www.nature.com/srep

List of Papers (Total 39,027)

Spin Torque Efficiency and Analytic Error Rate Estimates of Skyrmion Racetrack Memory

In this paper, the thermal stability of skyrmion bubbles and the critical currents to move them over pinning sites were investigated. For the used pinning geometries and the used parameters, the unexpected behavior is reported that the energy barrier to overcome the pinning site is larger than the energy barrier of the annihilation of a skyrmion. The annihilation takes place at...

PAmiRDB: A web resource for plant miRNAs targeting viruses

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged to be essential constituents of host antiviral-defense mechanisms. The miRNA mediated antiviral mechanism was first experimentally established in animals, which proved that host miRNAs regulate viral gene expression by targeting the animal virus mRNAs. There are comparatively fewer reports about such interactions in plants, however, artificial...

Iron induces insulin resistance in cardiomyocytes via regulation of oxidative stress

Iron overload is associated with various pathological changes which contribute to heart failure. Here, we examined mechanisms via which iron alters cardiomyocyte insulin sensitivity. Treatment of primary adult and neonatal cardiomyocytes as well as H9c2 cells with iron decreased insulin sensitivity determined via Western blotting or immunofluorescent detection of Akt and p70S6K...

Fear conditioning and extinction induce opposing changes in dendritic spine remodeling and somatic activity of layer 5 pyramidal neurons in the mouse motor cortex

Multiple brain regions including the amygdala and prefrontal cortex are crucial for modulating fear conditioning and extinction. The primary motor cortex is known to participate in the planning, control, and execution of voluntary movements. Whether and how the primary motor cortex is involved in modulating freezing responses related to fear conditioning and extinction remains...

Antibody-mediated clearance of tau in primary mouse microglial cultures requires Fcγ-receptor binding and functional lysosomes

Neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease are characterized by the progressive spreading and accumulation of hyper-phosphorylated tau protein in the brain. Anti-tau antibodies have been shown to reduce tau pathology in in vivo models and antibody-mediated clearance of tau exerted by microglia has been proposed as a contributing factor. By subjecting primary microglia...

Wing morphology predicts geographic range size in vespertilionid bats

Why some species are widespread across continents while others are confined geographically remains an open question in ecology and biogeography. Previous research has attempted to explain interspecific variation in geographic range size based on differences in dispersal ability. However, the relationship between dispersal ability and geographic range size remains uncertain...

Seasonal intensification and trends of rogue wave events on the US western seaboard

Studies of changes in wave climate typically consider trends in sea state statistics, such as the significant wave height. However, the temporal variability of individual rogue waves, which pose a hazard to users of the sea and coastal environment has not been investigated. We use time series of continuous surface elevation over 124–270 months (spanning 1994–2016), from 15 wave...

Effects of Neonicotinoid Insecticides on Physiology and Reproductive Characteristics of Captive Female and Fawn White-tailed Deer

Over the past decade, abnormalities have been documented in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in west-central Montana. Hypotheses proposed to explain these anomalies included contact with endocrine disrupting pesticides, such as imidacloprid. We evaluated the effects of imidacloprid experimentally at the South Dakota State University Wildlife and Fisheries Captive...

Predictors of Initial Smear-Negative Active Pulmonary Tuberculosis with Acute Early Stage Lung Injury by High-Resolution Computed Tomography and Clinical Manifestations: An Auxiliary Model in Critical Patients

This study evaluated the diagnostic use of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT), chest X-ray (CXR), and clinical manifestations (CM) to identify initial smear-negative (iSN) active pulmonary tuberculosis (aPTB) [iSN-aPTB] in patients with iSN-pulmonary diseases (PD) and acute lung injury (ALI). In the derivation cohort, the [iSN-PD] with ALI patients were divided into the...

Midbrain tectal stem cells display diverse regenerative capacities in zebrafish

How diverse adult stem and progenitor populations regenerate tissue following damage to the brain is poorly understood. In highly regenerative vertebrates, such as zebrafish, radial-glia (RG) and neuro-epithelial-like (NE) stem/progenitor cells contribute to neuronal repair after injury. However, not all RG act as neural stem/progenitor cells during homeostasis in the zebrafish...

Rg6, a rare ginsenoside, inhibits systemic inflammation through the induction of interleukin-10 and microRNA-146a

The immunobiological functions of Rg6, a rare ginsenoside from ginseng, have been largely unreported. In this paper, we demonstrate that Rg6 has a significant immunosuppressive function on Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4-induced systemic inflammatory responses. Rg6 was found to negatively regulate pro-inflammatory responses and severity in vivo, and thus induced recovery in mice with...

The contraceptive medroxyprogesterone acetate, unlike norethisterone, directly increases R5 HIV-1 infection in human cervical explant tissue at physiologically relevant concentrations

The intramuscular progestin-only injectable contraceptive, depo-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA-IM), is more widely used in Sub-Saharan Africa than another injectable contraceptive, norethisterone enanthate (NET-EN). Epidemiological data show a significant 1.4-fold increased risk of HIV-1 acquisition for DMPA-IM usage, while no such association is shown from limited data for...

Hexamethylene bisacetamide impairs NK cell-mediated clearance of acute T lymphoblastic leukemia cells and HIV-1-infected T cells that exit viral latency

The hexamethylene bisacetamide (HMBA) anticancer drug was dismissed due to limited efficacy in leukemic patients but it may re-enter into the clinics in HIV-1 eradication strategies because of its recently disclosed capacity to reactivate latent virus. Here, we investigated the impact of HMBA on the cytotoxicity of natural killer (NK) cells against acute T lymphoblastic leukemia...

Enhanced light extraction efficiency of Eu-related emission from a nano-patterned GaN layer grown by MOCVD

Eu-doped GaN is a promising material for the active layer in red light emitting diodes. Although the output power of LEDs based on GaN:Eu has been increasing by a combination of structural and growth optimizations, there is still a significant limitation resulting from a poor light extraction efficiency, typical for high refractive index materials. Here we studied nanostructuring...

The effect of endothelial nitric oxide synthase on the hemodynamics and wall mechanics in murine arteriovenous fistulas

Creation of a hemodialysis arteriovenous fistula (AVF) causes aberrant vascular mechanics at and near the AVF anastomosis. When inadequately regulated, these aberrant mechanical factors may impede AVF lumen expansion to cause AVF maturation failure, a significant clinical problem with no effective treatments. The endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS3) system is crucial for...

Plasma-activated medium triggers cell death and the presentation of immune activating danger signals in melanoma and pancreatic cancer cells

Over the past decade, cold atmospheric plasmas have shown promising application in cancer therapy. The therapeutic use of plasma-activated media is a topic addressed in an emerging field known as plasma pharmacy. In oncology, plasma-activated media are  used to harness the therapeutic effects of oxidant species when they come in contact with cancer cells. Among several factors...

Identifying Climate-Induced Groundwater Depletion in GRACE Observations

Depletion of groundwater resources has been identified in numerous global aquifers, suggesting that extractions have exceeded natural recharge rates in critically important global freshwater supplies. Groundwater depletion has been ascribed to groundwater pumping, often ignoring influences of direct and indirect consequences of climate variability. Here, we explore relations...

Computational analysis of the evolutionarily conserved Missing In Metastasis/Metastasis Suppressor 1 gene predicts novel interactions, regulatory regions and transcriptional control

Missing in Metastasis (MIM), or Metastasis Suppressor 1 (MTSS1), is a highly conserved protein, which links the plasma membrane to the actin cytoskeleton. MIM has been implicated in various cancers, however, its modes of action remain largely enigmatic. Here, we performed an extensive in silico characterisation of MIM to gain better understanding of its function. We detected...

Circuit-Based Quantum Random Access Memory for Classical Data

A prerequisite for many quantum information processing tasks to truly surpass classical approaches is an efficient procedure to encode classical data in quantum superposition states. In this work, we present a circuit-based flip-flop quantum random access memory to construct a quantum database of classical information in a systematic and flexible way. For registering or updating...

A Universal Stamping Method of Graphene Transfer for Conducting Flexible and Transparent Polymers

Transfer method of chemically vapor deposition graphene is an appealing issue to realize its application as flexible and transparent electrodes. A universal stamping method to transfer as grown graphene from copper onto different flexible and transparent polymers (FTPs) reported here ensures simple, robust, rapid, clean and low-cost. This method relies on coating ethylene vinyl...

Increased expression of Toll-like receptors 2, 3, 4 and 7 mRNA in the kidney and intestine of a septic mouse model

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are the key regulators of innate and adaptive immunity and are highly expressed during sepsis. Thus, studying the expression of TLRs in an animal septic model might indicate their possible association with acute kidney injury in sepsis. Seventy-two male C57BL/6J mice were used for this study. Randomly, these animals were divided into 6 groups (N = 12...

Soil carbon is a useful surrogate for conservation planning in developing nations

Defining the optimal placement of areas for biodiversity conservation in developing nations remains a significant challenge. Our best methods for spatially targeting potential locations for biodiversity conservation rely heavily on extensive georeferenced species observation data which is often incomplete or lacking in developing nations. One possible solution is the use of...

Natural Source-Based Graphene as Sensitising Agents for Air Quality Monitoring

Natural carbon powder has been used as a precursor to prepare two main types of sensitising agents of nitrogen-doped carbon nanoparticles (N-CNPs) and nitrogen-doped graphene quantum dots coupled to nanosheets (N-GQDs-NSs) by using simple treatments of chemical oxidation and centrifugation separation. Characterization based on FTIR, XPS, XRD, Raman spectroscopy, FE-SEM, HR-TEM...

Responsive Cells for rhEGF bioassay Obtained through Screening of a CRISPR/Cas9 Library

Bioassay of recombinant protein products is important tests to ensure protein effectiveness. Some recombinant protein products have no cells used in their bioassay but instead use animal models, while others have no suitable method. Here, we developed a method to obtain responsive cells used in bioassay of proteins. After screening of a CRISPR/Cas9 library, we obtained a...

First-in-human clinical study of novel technique to diagnose malignant melanoma via thermal conductivity measurements

Melanoma is an aggressive skin cancer that originates from melanocytes and, especially in the case of early-stage melanoma, is distributed adjacent to the epidermis and superficial dermis. Although early-stage melanoma can be distinguished from benign nevus via a dermoscopy, it is difficult to distinguish invasive melanoma in its early stages from in situ melanoma. Because...