Scientific Reports

http://www.nature.com/srep

List of Papers (Total 39,027)

Long term results of down-staging and liver transplantation for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma beyond the conventional criteria

The objective of the study is to evaluate 10 years of down-staging strategy for liver transplantation (LT) with a median follow-up of 5 years. Data on long-term results are poor and less information is available for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) non-responder patients or those ineligible for down-staging. The outcome of 308 HCC candidates and the long-term results of 231 LTs for...

Comparative analysis of toxicity reduction of wastewater in twelve industrial park wastewater treatment plants based on battery of toxicity assays

Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in industrial parks provide centralized treatment for industrial and domestic wastewater. However, the information on toxicity reduction of wastewater and its correlation with treatment process in industrial park is limited. This study compared the toxicity reduction of wastewater in 12 industrial park WWTPs based on battery of toxicity assays...

Fasting apolipoprotein B48 is associated with large artery atherosclerotic stroke: a case-control study

Fasting Apolipoprotein B48 (ApoB48) is reported to be a well surrogate marker for postprandial lipidemia and have been repeatedly associated with cardiovascular disease. However, whether ApoB48 is also a risk factor for ischemic stroke have not been reported. In this study, our object is to explore the relationship between fasting plasma ApoB48 levels and the large artery...

B-cell translocation gene 2 enhances fibroblast growth factor 21 production by inducing Kruppel-like factor 15

Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a hormone that is vital for the regulation of metabolic homeostasis. In the present study, we report that Kruppel-like factor 15 (KLF15) is a novel mediator of b-cell translocation gene 2 (BTG2)-induced FGF21 biosynthesis. The expression levels of hepatic Fgf21, Btg2, and Klf15, and the production of serum FGF21 increased significantly in...

Vector uncoating limits adeno-associated viral vector-mediated transduction of human dendritic cells and vector immunogenicity

AAV vectors poorly transduce Dendritic cells (DC), a feature invoked to explain AAV’s low immunogenicity. However, the reason for this non-permissiveness remained elusive. Here, we performed an in-depth analysis using human monocyte-derived immature DC (iDC) as model. iDC internalized AAV vectors of various serotypes, but even the most efficient serotype failed to transduce iDC...

Development of selective cytotoxic viral vectors for concentration of undifferentiated cells in cardiomyocytes derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells

Cell-processed therapeutic products (CTPs) derived from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) have innovative applications in regenerative medicine. However, undifferentiated hPSCs possess tumorigenic potential; thus, sensitive methods for the detection of residual undifferentiated hPSCs are essential for the clinical use of hPSC-derived CTPs. The detection limit of the methods...

Wrist morphology reveals substantial locomotor diversity among early catarrhines: an analysis of capitates from the early Miocene of Tinderet (Kenya)

Considerable taxonomic diversity has been recognised among early Miocene catarrhines (apes, Old World monkeys, and their extinct relatives). However, locomotor diversity within this group has eluded characterization, bolstering a narrative that nearly all early catarrhines shared a primitive locomotor repertoire resembling that of the well-described arboreal quadruped Ekembo...

Substantial fat mass loss reduces low-grade inflammation and induces positive alteration in cardiometabolic factors in normal-weight individuals

The accumulation of fat, especially in visceral sites, is a significant risk factor for several chronic diseases with altered cardiometabolic homeostasis. We studied how intensive long-term weight loss and subsequent weight regain affect physiological changes, by longitudinally interrogating the lipid metabolism and white blood cell transcriptomic markers in healthy, normal...

Metamaterial for elastostatic cloaking under thermal gradients

We introduce the optimization-based method for the design of thermo-mechanical metamaterials and, particularly, for the elastostatic cloaking under thermal loads. It consists of solving a large-scale, nonlinear constrained optimization problem, where the objective function is the error in the cloaking task accomplishment. The design variables define the required metamaterial...

Element banding and organic linings within chamber walls of two benthic foraminifera

Trace and minor elements incorporated in foraminiferal shells are among the most used proxies for reconstructing past environmental conditions. A prominent issue concerning these proxies is that the inter-specimen variability in element composition is often considerably larger than the variability associated with the environmental conditions for which the proxy is used. Within a...

DESTINI: A deep-learning approach to contact-driven protein structure prediction

The amino acid sequence of a protein encodes the blueprint of its native structure. To predict the corresponding structural fold from the protein’s sequence is one of most challenging problems in computational biology. In this work, we introduce DESTINI (deep structural inference for proteins), a novel computational approach that combines a deep-learning algorithm for protein...

Screening for HPV infection in exfoliated cervical cells of women from different ethnic groups in Yili, Xinjiang, China

We investigated the infection status and genotype distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) in women of different ages and various ethnic groups in the Yili region, Xinjiang, China. We checked the HPV genotypes of 3,445 samples of exfoliated cervical cells using the PCR–reverse dot blot method. The total infection rate of HPV was 25.60% (882/3,445). The ethnic stratification...

Effect of strain relaxation on performance of InGaN/GaN green LEDs grown on 4-inch sapphire substrate with sputtered AlN nucleation layer

Here we demonstrate high-brightness InGaN/GaN green light emitting diodes (LEDs) with in-situ low-temperature GaN (LT-GaN) nucleation layer (NL) and ex-situ sputtered AlN NL on 4-inch patterned sapphire substrate. Compared to green LEDs on LT-GaN (19 nm)/sapphire template, green LEDs on sputtered AlN (19 nm)/template has better crystal quality while larger in-plane compressive...

Extensive reprogramming of the nascent transcriptome during iPSC to hepatocyte differentiation

Hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs) derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) provide a renewable source of cells for drug discovery, disease modelling and cell-based therapies. Here, by using GRO-Seq we provide the first genome-wide analysis of the nascent RNAs in iPSCs, HLCs and primary hepatocytes to extend our understanding of the transcriptional changes occurring during...

Evaluation of detection probabilities at the water-filtering and initial PCR steps in environmental DNA metabarcoding using a multispecies site occupancy model

Environmental DNA (eDNA) metabarcoding is a recently developed method to assess biodiversity based on a high-throughput parallel DNA sequencing applied to DNA present in the ecosystem. Although eDNA metabarcoding enables a rapid assessment of biodiversity, it is prone to species detection errors that may occur at sequential steps in field sampling, laboratory experiments, and...

Examination of the temporal and spatial dynamics of the gut microbiome in newborn piglets reveals distinct microbial communities in six intestinal segments

Intestinal microbiota plays a crucial role in immune development and disease progression in mammals from birth onwards. The gastrointestinal tract of newborn mammals is rapidly colonized by microbes with tremendous biomass and diversity. Understanding how this complex of segmental communities evolves in different gastrointestinal sites over time has great biological significance...

Geometric frustration in ordered lattices of plasmonic nanoelements

Inspired by geometrically frustrated magnetic systems, we present the optical response of three cases of hexagonal lattices of plasmonic nanoelements. All of them were designed using a metal-insulator-metal configuration to enhance absorption of light, with elements in close proximity to exploit near-field coupling, and with triangular symmetry to induce frustration of the...

Volcaniclastic tide-modulated tempestite in a coastal tuff ring, Jeju Island, Korea

The need for more accurate and extensive records of storm activity is increasing because of growing population and infrastructure in coastal areas. Records of past storm activity have consequently been sought from diverse sedimentary proxies in marginal marine environments, as well as historical documents. In this paper, we introduce a unique record of a 3.7 ka BP storm event...

Effects of 4-Hexylresorcinol on Protein Expressions in RAW 264.7 Cells as Determined by Immunoprecipitation High Performance Liquid Chromatography

4-Hexylresorcinol (4HR) is a small organic compound that is used as an additive antiseptic and antioxidant, but its molecular properties have not been clearly elucidated. The present study explored the cellular effects of 4HR on RAW 264.7 cells by immunoprecipitation high-performance liquid chromatography (IP-HPLC) using 216 antisera. 4HR-treated cells showed significant...

Large-scale data from wearables reveal regional disparities in sleep patterns that persist across age and sex

Prior reports on geographical differences in sleep duration have relied on samples collected at different time points with a variety of subjective instruments. Using sleep data from a total of 553,559 nights from 23,680 Fitbit users (aged 15–80y), we found objective evidence for regional disparities in sleep duration of 32–43 min between Oceanian and East Asian users on weekdays...

Renal Damaging Effect Elicited by Bicalutamide Therapy Uncovered Multiple Action Mechanisms As Evidenced by the Cell Model

Bicalutamide (Bic) is frequently used in androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for treating prostate cancer. ADT-induced hypogonadism was reported to have the potential to lead to acute kidney injury (AKI). ADT was also shown to induce bladder fibrosis via induction of the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β level. We hypothesized that Bic can likely induce renal fibrosis. To...

On the processes influencing rapid intensity changes of tropical cyclones over the Bay of Bengal

We present a numerical investigation of the processes that influenced the contrasting rapid intensity changes in Tropical Cyclones (TC) Phailin and Lehar (2013) over the Bay of Bengal. Our emphasis is on the significant differences in the environments experienced by the TCs within a few weeks and the consequent differences in their organization of vortex-scale convection that...

Cationic Intrinsically Disordered Antimicrobial Peptides (CIDAMPs) Represent a New Paradigm of Innate Defense with a Potential for Novel Anti-Infectives

In the search for potential mechanisms underlying the remarkable resistance of healthy skin against infection by soil bacteria like Pseudomonas (P.) aeruginosa we identified fragments of the intrinsically disordered protein hornerin as potent microbicidal agents in the stratum corneum. We found that, independent of the amino acid (AA)-sequence, any tested linear cationic peptide...

Intracellular delivery of mRNA to human primary T cells with microfluidic vortex shedding

Intracellular delivery of functional macromolecules, such as DNA and RNA, across the cell membrane and into the cytosol, is a critical process in both biology and medicine. Herein, we develop and use microfluidic chips containing post arrays to induce microfluidic vortex shedding, or μVS, for cell membrane poration that permits delivery of mRNA into primary human T lymphocytes...