Scientific Reports

http://www.nature.com/srep

List of Papers (Total 39,027)

Highly Sensitive Active-Matrix Driven Self-Capacitive Fingerprint Sensor based on Oxide Thin Film Transistor

The fingerprint recognition has been widely used for biometrics in mobile devices. Existing fingerprint sensors have already been commercialized in the field of mobile devices using primarily Si-based technologies. Recently, mutual-capacitive fingerprint sensors have been developed to lower production costs and expand the range of application using thin-film technologies. However...

Chitosan complements entrapment of silicon inside nitrogen doped carbon to improve and stabilize the capacity of Li-ion batteries

A facile strategy to entrap milled silicon (m-Si) particles using nitrogen-doped-carbon (N-C@m-Si) to overcome the dramatic volume changes in Si during intercalation of lithium ions and to improve its electronic conductivity is reported here. The only natural nitrogen containing biomaterial alkaline polysaccharide, i.e., chitosan, is used as the carbon source. Simple hydrothermal...

Dynamic Concatenation of Quantum Error Correction in Integrated Quantum Computing Architecture

Resource overhead problem caused by concatenation in quantum error correction (QEC) is of significant importance for the realization of fault-tolerant quantum computation (FTQC). To attack this problem, we propose a novel scheme by considering integrated FTQC architecture where the concatenation level is controlled dynamically; i.e., less (or more) concatenation levels are...

Selecting variants of unknown significance through network-based gene-association significantly improves risk prediction for disease-control cohorts

Variants of unknown/uncertain significance (VUS) pose a huge dilemma in current genetic variation screening methods and genetic counselling. Driven by methods of next generation sequencing (NGS) such as whole exome sequencing (WES), a plethora of VUS are being detected in research laboratories as well as in the health sector. Motivated by this overabundance of VUS, we propose a...

Climate and landscape changes as driving forces for future range shift in southern populations of the European badger

Human-Induced Rapid Environmental Change (HIREC), particularly climate change and habitat conversion, affects species distributions worldwide. Here, we aimed to (i) assess the factors that determine range patterns of European badger (Meles meles) at the southwestern edge of their distribution and (ii) forecast the possible impacts of future climate and landcover changes on those...

Natural biocide disrupts nestmate recognition in honeybees

Honeybee colonies are under the threat of many stressors, biotic and abiotic factors that strongly affect their survival. Recently, great attention has been directed at chemical pesticides, including their effects at sub-lethal doses on bee behaviour and colony success; whereas the potential side effects of natural biocides largely used in agriculture, such as entomopathogenic...

Rapalog resistance is associated with mesenchymal-type changes in Tsc2-null cells

Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC) and Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) are caused by inactivating mutations in TSC1 or TSC2, leading to mTORC1 hyperactivation. The mTORC1 inhibitors rapamycin and analogs (rapalogs) are approved for treating of TSC and LAM. Due to their cytostatic and not cytocidal action, discontinuation of treatment leads to tumor regrowth and decline in pulmonary...

Television viewing and cognitive decline in older age: findings from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing

There has been significant interest in the effects of television on cognition in children, but much less research has been carried out into the effects in older adults. This study aimed to explore whether television viewing behaviours in adults aged 50 or over are associated with a decline in cognition. Using data from the English Longitudinal Study of Aging involving 3,662...

Reliability of two methods for identifying the timing of medium latency responses in subjects with and without chronic ankle instability

This study aims to: (1) to compare 2 methods of assessing the timing of medium latency responses (MLR), in regard to intrasession reliability and mean values, in subjects with and without chronic ankle instability (CAI), and (2) to analyze the influence of CAI in timing of MLR and in its reliability. Thirty six athletes with (16) and without (20) CAI participated. Bilateral...

Pattern of Altered Plasma Elemental Phosphorus, Calcium, Selenium, Iron and Copper in Alzheimer’s Disease

Metal/mineral dyshomeostasis has been implicated in the development of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The aim of the study was to investigate the difference in absolute and percentage levels of plasma phosphorus, calcium, iron, zinc, copper, selenium in cognitively normal (CN) and AD subjects. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) spectroscopy was used to detect plasma metals...

High-resolution atmospheric-pressure MALDI mass spectrometry imaging workflow for lipidomic analysis of late fetal mouse lungs

Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) provides label-free, non-targeted molecular and spatial information of the biomolecules within tissue. Lipids play important roles in lung biology, e.g. as surfactant, preventing alveolar collapse during normal and forced respiration. Lipidomic characterization of late fetal mouse lungs at day 19 of gestation (E19) has not been performed yet. In...

Prognostic significance of preoperative MRI findings in young patients with breast cancer

The objective is to evaluate the prognostic value of preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in breast cancer patients aged less than 40 years. This retrospective, single-center study evaluated 92 women aged <40 years who received a diagnosis of invasive breast carcinoma between 2008 and 2012. These patients underwent a breast MRI before treatment and follow-up at...

The kidney anion exchanger 1 affects tight junction properties via claudin-4

In the renal collecting duct, intercalated cells regulate acid-base balance by effluxing protons through the v-H+-ATPase, and bicarbonate via apical pendrin or the basolateral kidney anion exchanger 1 (kAE1). Additionally, collecting duct cells play an essential role in transepithelial absorption of sodium and chloride. Expression of kAE1 in polarized MDCK I cells was previously...

Polymorphisms in CARD8 and NLRP3 are associated with extrapulmonary TB and poor clinical outcome in active TB in Ethiopia

Innate immunity is a first line defense against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection where inflammasome activation and secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1beta, plays a major role. Thus, genetic polymorphisms in innate immunity-related genes such as CARD8 and NLRP3 may contribute to the understanding of why most exposed individuals do not develop infection. Our aim was...

3D Muography for the Search of Hidden Cavities

Muography (or muon radiography) is a technique that exploits the penetration capability of muons, elementary particles similar to electrons but with a mass about 200 times larger. High energy muons are naturally produced in the interactions of cosmic rays with the Earth atmosphere. The measurement of their absorption in matter allows the imaging of the inner structure of large...

Factors involved in initiation and regulation of complement lectin pathway influence postoperative outcome after pediatric cardiac surgery involving cardiopulmonary bypass

Congenital heart disease (CHD) often requires surgical intervention, and is sometimes associated with life-threatening post-operative complications. We have investigated some factors of the innate immune system involved in the initiation or regulation of complement lectin pathway activation (MASP-1, MASP-2 MASP-3, MAp19, MAp44, ficolin-3) and related them to complications and...

Investigating the relationship between district-level socioeconomic status and individual obesity in Taiwanese adolescents: A large-scale cross-sectional analysis

The current study aimed to assess the prevalence of obesity and to explore the relationship between socioeconomic status and obesity among adolescents in Taiwan, a transitioning country. Data from the Taiwan School Physical Fitness Database on 1,875,627 Taiwanese adolescents aged 10–18 years were analyzed. The average family income per household in each district was collected...

Corneal lymphangiogenesis ameliorates corneal inflammation and edema in late stage of bacterial keratitis

Lymphatic vessels play a crucial role in systemic immune response and regulation of tissue fluid homeostasis. Corneal lymphangiogenesis in bacterial keratitis has not been studied. In this study, we investigated the mechanism and the role of corneal lymphangiogenesis in a murine bacterial keratitis model using Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We first demonstrated that corneal...

Genome-wide association study suggests impact of chromosome 10 rs139401390 on kidney function in patients with coronary artery disease

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an independent risk factor for onset and progression of coronary artery disease (CAD). Discovery of predisposing loci for kidney function in CAD patients was performed using a genome-wide association approach. Inclusion criteria were CAD with ≥50% stenosis (≥1 coronary artery) and a creatinine-based estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 30...

Analysis of wheat gene expression related to the oxidative stress response and signal transduction under short-term osmotic stress

Water shortage is a major environmental stress that causes the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The increase in ROS production induces molecular responses, which are key factors in determining the level of plant tolerance to stresses, including drought. The aim of this study was to determine the expression levels of genes encoding MAPKs (MAPK3 and MAPK6), antioxidant...

Unlocking HDR-mediated nucleotide editing by identifying high-efficiency target sites using machine learning

Editing individual nucleotides is a crucial component for validating genomic disease association. It is currently hampered by CRISPR-Cas-mediated “base editing” being limited to certain nucleotide changes, and only achievable within a small window around CRISPR-Cas target sites. The more versatile alternative, HDR (homology directed repair), has a 3-fold lower efficiency with...

Bub1 kinase- and H2A phosphorylation-independent regulation of Shugoshin proteins under glucose-restricted conditions

Shugoshin family proteins are involved in various aspects of chromatin regulations, such as chromosome segregation, chromatin structure, and gene expression. In growing yeast and mammalian cells, C-terminal phosphorylation of histone H2A by Bub1 kinase is essential for the localization of Shugoshin proteins to chromatin. Here, we show that in stationary-phase cells, Bub1-mediated...

Development of highly inhomogeneous temperature profile within electrically heated alkali silicate glasses

According to Joule’s well-known first law, application of electric field across a homogeneous solid should produce heat uniformly in proportion to the square of electrical current. Here we report strong departure from this expectation for common, homogeneous ionic solids such as alkali silicate glasses when subjected even to moderate fields (~100 V/cm). Unlike electronically...

Intensity-modulated radiation therapy with simultaneous integrated boost for locally advanced breast cancer: a prospective study on toxicity and quality of life

Radiotherapy after breast conserving surgery and mastectomy with node positive disease has been shown to reduce risk of recurrence and mortality in the treatment of breast cancer. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) after conservative surgery offers several advantages over conventional RT including improved acute and late toxicity and quality of life (QoL). We undertook...

Body-limb coordination mechanism underlying speed-dependent gait transitions in sea roaches

The sea roach is an isopod with 14 legs; owing to its many degrees of freedom and coordination thereof, it can walk rapidly on rough terrain. Although there likely exists a remarkable decentralized control mechanism that facilitates fast and adaptive locomotion of sea roaches, it still remains elusive. To address this issue, we performed behavioural experiments and revealed that...