Scientific Reports

http://www.nature.com/srep

List of Papers (Total 39,028)

Differential effects of coral-giant clam assemblages on biofouling formation

To prevent the settlement and/or the growth of fouling organisms (i.e. bacteria, fungi or microalgae), benthic sessile species have developed various defense mechanisms among which the production of chemical molecules. While studies have mostly focused on the release of chemical compounds by single species, there exist limited data on multi-species assemblages. We used an...

Neuropeptides Substance P and Calcitonin Gene Related Peptide Accelerate the Development and Fibrogenesis of Endometriosis

Endometriotic lesions are known to be hyperinnervated, especially in lesions of deep endometriosis (DE), which are frequently in close proximity to various nerve plexuses. DE lesions typically have higher fibromuscular content than that of ovarian endometriomas (OE) lesions, but the underlying reason remains elusive. Aside from their traditional role of pain transduction, however...

Effect of sodium diffusion on the properties of CIGS solar absorbers prepared using elemental Se in a two-step process

The influence of Na diffusion from various glass substrates during a high-temperature slenization process on the microstructure and morphology of two-step formed CIGS absorber layers is investigated. In order to minimise the CIGS absorber formation time, elemental Se vapour is used to prepare the CIGS absorber. The grain sizes of the CIGS films are found to increase with...

Histopathological and Ultrastructural Changes after Electroporation in Pig Liver Using Parallel-Plate Electrodes and High-Performance Generator

Irreversible electroporation (IRE) has gained attention as a new non-thermal therapy for ablation with important benefits in terms of homogeneous treatment and fast recovery. In this study, a new concept of high voltage generator is used, enabling irreversible electroporation treatment in large tissue volume using parallel plates. Unlike currently available generators, the...

Tapered arrangement of metallic nanorod chains for magnified plasmonic nanoimaging

Plasmonic nanolens, a 3-dimensional tapered arrangement of metallic nanorod chains, holds a great promise as a new plasmonics-based optical nano-imaging technique. While multiple nanorod chains can transfer the near-field signal originating from a sample to an image at a distance larger than a micro-meter, where each nanorod chain contributes in forming one pixel in the image...

Real-Time Forecasting of Hand-Foot-and-Mouth Disease Outbreaks using the Integrating Compartment Model and Assimilation Filtering

Hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) is a highly contagious viral infection, and real-time predicting of HFMD outbreaks will facilitate the timely implementation of appropriate control measures. By integrating a susceptible-exposed-infectious-recovered (SEIR) model and an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) assimilation method, we developed an integrated compartment model and...

The promiscuous activity of alpha-amylase in biodegradation of low-density polyethylene in a polymer-starch blend

Blending polyolefins with certain types of natural polymers like starch can be beneficial to their biodegradation. The impact of alpha-amylase on the biodegradation of low-density polyethylene (LDPE)-starch blend samples in an aqueous solution was investigated through characterizing their physical, mechanical and chemical properties. Results indicated that the weight and tensile...

Fine scale spatial variability in the influence of environmental cycles on the occurrence of dolphins at coastal sites

Environmental cycles often influence the presence of animals, creating patterns at different temporal scales, which may mean that their effects overlap and/or interact. Interactions between diel and seasonal cycles have been reported to influence fish behaviour but little is known about such interactions in marine top predators. Here, we studied the combined effect of seasonal...

Comparisons between multi-component myelin water fraction, T1w/T2w ratio, and diffusion tensor imaging measures in healthy human brain structures

Various MRI techniques, including myelin water imaging, T1w/T2w ratio mapping and diffusion-based imaging can be used to characterize tissue microstructure. However, surprisingly few studies have examined the degree to which these MRI measures are related within and between various brain regions. Therefore, whole-brain MRI scans were acquired from 31 neurologically-healthy...

Top-down Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Human Serum Autoantibody Antigen-Binding Fragments

Detecting autoimmune diseases at an early stage is crucial for effective treatment and disease management to slow disease progression and prevent irreversible organ damage. In many autoimmune diseases, disease-specific autoantibodies are produced by B cells in response to soluble autoantigens due to defects in B cell tolerance mechanisms. Autoantibodies accrue early in disease...

Explaining the unique nature of individual gait patterns with deep learning

Machine learning (ML) techniques such as (deep) artificial neural networks (DNN) are solving very successfully a plethora of tasks and provide new predictive models for complex physical, chemical, biological and social systems. However, in most cases this comes with the disadvantage of acting as a black box, rarely providing information about what made them arrive at a particular...

Geometrical Perturbation Techniques and Approximate Analysis for Eigenmode Splitting and Shifting in Electromagnetic Planar Dual-Mode Resonators

Dual-mode electromagnetic resonators are used in numerous systems and applications in physics and engineering. They rely on degenerate-mode splitting to control the spectral properties of the system that employs them. Controlling (splitting or shifting) these eigenvalues to fully tune the frequency response, however, is a nontrivial problem that involves the use of geometrical...

Cyclotron resonance in the high mobility GaAs/AlGaAs 2D electron system over the microwave, mm-wave, and terahertz- bands

The reflected microwave power from the photo-excited high mobility GaAs/AlGaAs 2D device has been measured over the wide frequency band spanning from 30 to 330 GHz simultaneously along with diagonal magnetoresistance as a function of the magnetic field. Easily distinguishable resonances in the reflected power signal are observed at the same magnetic fields as a reduced amplitude...

Three-Dimensional Textile Platform for Electrochemical Devices and its Application to Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

The demand for easy-to-use portable electric devices that are combined with essential items in everyday life, such as apparel, has increased. Hence, significant research has been conducted into the development of wearable technology by fabrication of electronic devices with a textile structure based on fiber or fabric. However, the challenge to develop a fabrication method for...

Salt content dependent dielectric properties of pistachios relevant to radio-frequency pasteurization

This study was conducted to investigate the effect of salt content during radio-frequency (RF) heating on rate of temperature increase, dielectric properties (DPs), and reduction of pathogens in pistachios. Also, the effect of RF heating on pistachio quality of varying salt content was determined. Pistachios of different salt content (0, 100, and 330 mg sodium/serving) were...

Identification of FDA-approved drugs targeting the Farnesoid X Receptor

The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) belongs to the nuclear receptor family and is activated by bile acids. Multiple, chemically rather diverse, FXR agonists have been developed and several of these compounds are currently tested in clinical trials for NAFLD and cholestasis. Here, we investigated possible FXR-agonism or antagonism of existing FDA/EMA-approved drugs. By using our...

Association between Poor Sleep Quality and Subsequent Peptic Ulcer Recurrence in Older Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment: Examining the Role of Social Engagement

This study aims to examine whether perceived poor sleep quality predicts subsequent recurrence of peptic ulcer disease (PUD) in older patients with mild cognitive impairment following Helicobacter pylori eradication and to investigate whether social engagement status alters this association. Of 1,689 older patients with H. pylori-infected PUD recruited from eight Grade-A...

The severity of ulnar variance compared with contralateral hand: its significance on postoperative wrist function in patients with distal radius fracture

The aim of this study was to detect the severity of ulnar variance (UV) compared with contralateral hand on postoperative wrist function in patients with distal radius fracture. 116 cases with unilateral distal radius fracture were retrospectively analyzed and divided into high or low UV severity groups (Dividing value = 2.5 mm). The following parameters were used to evaluate the...

The effect of Robertsonian translocations on the intranuclear positioning of NORs (nucleolar organizing regions) in human sperm cells

Only a few studies have described sperm chromosome intranuclear positioning changes in men with reproductive failure and an incorrect somatic karyotype. We studied the influence of Robertsonian translocations on the acrocentric chromosome positioning in human sperm cells. The basis of the analysis was the localization of NORs (nucleolar organizing regions) in sperm nuclei from...

Dynamics of soil microbial communities following vegetation succession in a karst mountain ecosystem, Southwest China

The interaction between soil property and soil microbial community in karst area still remains an open question. The characteristics of soil physicochemical properties and microbial community structure and their relationship under five vegetation succession stages (grassland, shrub land, secondary forest, plantation forest, and natural forest) at two soil depths (0–10 cm and 10...

Exquisitely-preserved, high-definition skin traces in diminutive theropod tracks from the Cretaceous of Korea

Small theropod tracks, ichnogenus Minisauripus, from the Jinju Formation (Cretaceous) of Korea reveal exquisitely preserved skin texture impressions. This is the first report for any dinosaur of skin traces that cover entire footprints, and every footprint in a trackway. Special sedimentological conditions allowed footprint registration without smearing of skin texture patterns...

Combined morphological and functional liver MRI using spin-lattice relaxation in the rotating frame (T1ρ) in conjunction with Gadoxetic Acid-enhanced MRI

Noninvasive early detection of liver cirrhosis and fibrosis is essential for management and therapy. The aim was to investigated whether a combination of the functional parameter relative enhancement (RE) on Gadoxetic Acid magnetic resonance imaging (Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI) and the fibrosis parameter T1ρ distinguishes cirrhosis and healthy liver. We analyzed patients with Gd...

Doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy associated with inhibition of autophagic degradation process and defects in mitochondrial respiration

Doxorubicin (Dox) is a highly effective anticancer drug but cause acute ventricular dysfunction, and also induce late-onset cardiomyopathy and heart failure. Despite extensive studies, the pathogenic sequelae leading to the progression of Dox-associated cardiomyopathy remains unknown. We assessed temporal changes in autophagy, mitochondrial dynamics, and bioenergetics in mouse...

Diattenuation Imaging reveals different brain tissue properties

When transmitting polarised light through histological brain sections, different types of diattenuation (polarisation-dependent attenuation of light) can be observed: In some brain regions, the light is minimally attenuated when it is polarised parallel to the nerve fibres (referred to as D+), in others, it is maximally attenuated (referred to as D−). The underlying mechanisms of...

Induction of MET Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Down-regulation through Antibody-mediated Receptor Clustering

The proto-oncoprotein MET is a receptor tyrosine kinase that plays a key role in cancer cell growth and invasion. We have used fluorescence-tagged antibodies to activate MET in live serum-starved glioblastoma cells and monitor the fate of antibody-bound MET receptor in single cell-based assays. We found that the antibodies induced rapid and transient formation of highly polarized...