Molecular Psychiatry

http://www.nature.com/mp

List of Papers (Total 1,797)

Altered white matter microstructure in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome: a multisite diffusion tensor imaging study

22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS)—a neurodevelopmental condition caused by a hemizygous deletion on chromosome 22—is associated with an elevated risk of psychosis and other developmental brain disorders. Prior single-site diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) studies have reported altered white matter (WM) microstructure in 22q11DS, but small samples and variable methods...

Association of norepinephrine transporter methylation with in vivo NET expression and hyperactivity–impulsivity symptoms in ADHD measured with PET

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder with a robust genetic influence. The norepinephrine transporter (NET) is of particular interest as it is one of the main targets in treatment of the disorder. As ADHD is a complex and polygenetic condition, the possible regulation by epigenetic processes has received increased attention. We...

Morphine coordinates SST and PV interneurons in the prelimbic cortex to disinhibit pyramidal neurons and enhance reward

Opioids, such as morphine, are clinic analgesics which induce euphoria. Morphine exposure modifies the excitability and functional interactions between neurons, while the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms, especially how morphine assembles heterogeneous interneurons (INs) in prelimbic cortex (PrL) to mediate disinhibition and reward, are not clear. Using approaches of...

Early restoration of parvalbumin interneuron activity prevents memory loss and network hyperexcitability in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease

Neuronal network dysfunction is increasingly recognized as an early symptom in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and may provide new entry points for diagnosis and intervention. Here, we show that amyloid-beta-induced hyperexcitability of hippocampal inhibitory parvalbumin (PV) interneurons importantly contributes to neuronal network dysfunction and memory impairment in APP/PS1 mice, a...

Nucleus accumbens medium spiny neurons subtypes signal both reward and aversion

Deficits in decoding rewarding (and aversive) signals are present in several neuropsychiatric conditions such as depression and addiction, emphasising the importance of studying the underlying neural circuits in detail. One of the key regions of the reward circuit is the nucleus accumbens (NAc). The classical view on the field postulates that NAc dopamine receptor D1-expressing...

Allele-specific expression and high-throughput reporter assay reveal functional genetic variants associated with alcohol use disorders

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of complex traits, such as alcohol use disorders (AUD), usually identify variants in non-coding regions and cannot by themselves distinguish whether the associated variants are functional or in linkage disequilibrium with the functional variants. Transcriptome studies can identify genes whose expression differs between alcoholics and...

A polygenic resilience score moderates the genetic risk for schizophrenia

Based on the discovery by the Resilience Project (Chen R. et al. Nat Biotechnol 34:531–538, 2016) of rare variants that confer resistance to Mendelian disease, and protective alleles for some complex diseases, we posited the existence of genetic variants that promote resilience to highly heritable polygenic disorders1,0 such as schizophrenia. Resilience has been traditionally...

Genome-wide methylation in alcohol use disorder subjects: implications for an epigenetic regulation of the cortico-limbic glucocorticoid receptors (NR3C1)

Environmental factors, including substance abuse and stress, cause long-lasting changes in the regulation of gene expression in the brain via epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation. We examined genome-wide DNA methylation patterns in the prefrontal cortex (PFC, BA10) of 25 pairs of control and individuals with alcohol use disorder (AUD), using the Infinium...

Do ADHD-impulsivity and BMI have shared polygenic and neural correlates?

There is an extensive body of literature linking ADHD to overweight and obesity. Research indicates that impulsivity features of ADHD account for a degree of this overlap. The neural and polygenic correlates of this association have not been thoroughly examined. In participants of the IMAGEN study, we found that impulsivity symptoms and body mass index (BMI) were associated (r...

From genetics to biology: advancing mental health research in the Genomics ERA

The Genomics Workgroup of the National Advisory Mental Health Council (NAMHC) recently issued a set of recommendations for advancing the NIMH psychiatric genetics research program and prioritizing subsequent follow-up studies. The report emphasized the primacy of rigorous statistical support from properly designed, well-powered studies for pursuing genetic variants robustly...

Systemic inflammation is associated with depressive symptoms differentially by sex and race: a longitudinal study of urban adults

Systemic inflammation may influence trajectories of depressive symptoms over time, perhaps differentially by sex and race. Inflammatory markers and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale [total score: CES-Dtotal and four distinctive domains: somatic complaints, depressed affect, positive affect and interpersonal problems] were examined among African-American (AA...

Shared mechanisms between coronary heart disease and depression: findings from a large UK general population-based cohort

While comorbidity between coronary heart disease (CHD) and depression is evident, it is unclear whether the two diseases have shared underlying mechanisms. We performed a range of analyses in 367,703 unrelated middle-aged participants of European ancestry from UK Biobank, a population-based cohort study, to assess whether comorbidity is primarily due to genetic or environmental...

Genetic contributions to two special factors of neuroticism are associated with affluence, higher intelligence, better health, and longer life

Higher scores on the personality trait of neuroticism, the tendency to experience negative emotions, are associated with worse mental and physical health. Studies examining links between neuroticism and health typically operationalize neuroticism by summing the items from a neuroticism scale. However, neuroticism is made up of multiple heterogeneous facets, each contributing to...

Towards precision medicine for stress disorders: diagnostic biomarkers and targeted drugs

The biological fingerprint of environmental adversity may be key to understanding health and disease, as it encompasses the damage induced as well as the compensatory reactions of the organism. Metabolic and hormonal changes may be an informative but incomplete window into the underlying biology. We endeavored to identify objective blood gene expression biomarkers for...

The influence of X chromosome variants on trait neuroticism

Autosomal variants have successfully been associated with trait neuroticism in genome-wide analysis of adequately powered samples. But such studies have so far excluded the X chromosome from analysis. Here, we report genetic association analyses of X chromosome and XY pseudoautosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and trait neuroticism using UK Biobank samples (N = 405...

Emergence of 5-HT5A signaling in parvalbumin neurons mediates delayed antidepressant action

The behavioral response to antidepressants is closely associated with physiological changes in the function of neurons in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG). Parvalbumin interneurons are a major class of GABAergic neurons, essential for DG function, and are involved in the pathophysiology of several neuropsychiatric disorders. However, little is known about the role(s) of these...

Deep neural networks in psychiatry

Machine and deep learning methods, today’s core of artificial intelligence, have been applied with increasing success and impact in many commercial and research settings. They are powerful tools for large scale data analysis, prediction and classification, especially in very data-rich environments (“big data”), and have started to find their way into medical applications. Here we...

Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol increases striatal glutamate levels in healthy individuals: implications for psychosis

The neurobiological mechanisms underlying the association between cannabis use and acute or long-lasting psychosis are not completely understood. While some evidence suggests altered striatal dopamine may underlie the association, direct evidence that cannabis use affects either acute or chronic striatal dopamine is inconclusive. In contrast, pre-clinical research suggests that...

A hypothalamus-habenula circuit controls aversion

Encoding and predicting aversive events are critical functions of circuits that support survival and emotional well-being. Maladaptive circuit changes in emotional valence processing can underlie the pathophysiology of affective disorders. The lateral habenula (LHb) has been linked to aversion and mood regulation through modulation of the dopamine and serotonin systems. We have...

Maternal aripiprazole exposure interacts with 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase mutations and alters embryonic neurodevelopment

Mutations in both copies in the gene encoding 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase (DHCR7) cause Smith–Lemli–Opitz Syndrome (SLOS), which is characterized by a toxic elevation in 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC). Aripiprazole (ARI) exposure, independent of genetic mutations, also leads to elevation of 7-DHC. We investigated the combined effect of a single-copy Dhcr7+/− mutation and...

SIRT1 in forebrain excitatory neurons produces sexually dimorphic effects on depression-related behaviors and modulates neuronal excitability and synaptic transmission in the medial prefrontal cortex

Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), an NAD+-dependent deacetylase, is a key regulator of cellular metabolism. Recent genome-wide association studies identified genetic variants of SIRT1 linked to major depressive disorders. SIRT1 is widely expressed in the brain; however, neuronal substrates that mediate SIRT1 action on depressive behaviors remain largely unknown. Here we show that selective...

Schizophrenia-associated genomic copy number variants and subcortical brain volumes in the UK Biobank

Schizophrenia is a highly heritable disorder for which anatomical brain alterations have been repeatedly reported in clinical samples. Unaffected at-risk groups have also been studied in an attempt to identify brain changes that do not reflect reverse causation or treatment effects. However, no robust associations have been observed between neuroanatomical phenotypes and known...

Opening up new horizons for psychiatric genetics in the Russian Federation: moving toward a national consortium

We provide an overview of the recent achievements in psychiatric genetics research in the Russian Federation and present genotype-phenotype, population, epigenetic, cytogenetic, functional, ENIGMA, and pharmacogenetic studies, with an emphasis on genome-wide association studies. The genetic backgrounds of mental illnesses in the polyethnic and multicultural population of the...