Mediators of Inflammation

https://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/

List of Papers (Total 5,418)

The Acute Phase Proteins Reaction in Children Suffering from Pseudocroup

The aim of the study was to evaluate the inflammatory reaction in children with pseudocroup and compare it with other laryngological diseases according to the available literature data. The study group included 51 children hospitalized because of pseudocroup. The measurements of the acute phase proteins (APP), such as C-reactive protein (CRP), alpha-1-antitrypsin (AT), alpha-1...

Epithelium-dependent regulation of airways smooth muscle function. A histamine-nitric oxide pathway

The airway epithelium is responsible for the production of a number of arachidonic acid and nonprostanoid inhibitory factors. Epithelium synthesises nitric oxide (NO) which may be important in regulating the function of airways smooth muscles. We studied in vitro the effect of histamine (100 nM100 μ M) which increases the NO release on rabbit airway smooth muscles induced by 80...

Semiquantitative analysis of intrahepatic CC-chemokine mRNAs in chronic hepatitis C

BACKGROUND: The mechanisms leading to hepatic injury in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection are only incompletely understood. Recent data propose a correlation of the intrahepatic expression of the CC chemokine RANTES and the degree of periportal and portal inflammatory liver damage.

Microarray Profiling of Lymphocytes in Internal Diseases With an Altered Immune Response: Potential and Methodology

Recently it has become possible to investigate expression of all human genes with microarray technique. The authors provide arguments to consider peripheral white blood cells and in particular lymphocytes as a model for the investigation of pathophysiology of asthma, RA, and SLE diseases in which inflammation is a major component. Lymphocytes are an alternative to tissue biopsies...

PG102 Upregulates IL-37 through p38, ERK, and Smad3 Pathways in HaCaT Keratinocytes

IL-37 is an immunomodulatory cytokine that suppresses inflammation in various cell types and disease models. However, its role in keratinocytes has not been clearly understood, and there has been no report on the agents that can increase the expression of IL-37 in keratinocytes. In this study, we investigated the effects of silencing IL37 in HaCaT keratinocytes and the molecular...

Chemokine Receptor 2 (CXCR2) Gene Variants and Their Association with Periodontal Bacteria in Patients with Chronic Periodontitis

Periodontitis, an inflammatory disease caused by subgingival Gram-negative (G-) bacteria, is linked with loss of the connective tissue and destruction of the alveolar bone. In the regulation of inflammatory response, chemokine receptor 2 (CXCR2), a specific receptor for interleukin-8 and neutrophil chemoattractant, plays an important role. The first aim of this study was to...

CD4

The bone marrow (BM) is not only a reservoir of hematopoietic stem cells but a repository of immunological memory cells. Further characterizing BM-resident memory T cells would be helpful to reveal the complicated relationship between the BM and immunological memory. In this study, we identified CD122high stem cell antigen-1 (Sca-1) high B cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) high CD4

Interleukin-37: The Effect of Anti-Inflammatory Response in Human Coronary Artery Endothelial Cells

Interleukin-37 (IL-37) is unique in the IL-1 family since it broadly suppresses innate immunity and elevates in humans with inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. IL-37 shows definite groups and transcripts for human IL37 gene, but it is still not completely understood the effect and mechanisms of inflammatory response in endothelial cells. It is well accepted that endothelial...

The Role of Infection in Acute Exacerbation of Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

Background. Acute exacerbation of IPF (AE-IPF) is associated with high mortality. We studied changes in pathogen involvement during AE-IPF and explored a possible role of infection in AE-IPF. Objectives. Our purpose is to investigate the role of infection in AE-IPF. Methods. Overall, we recruited 170 IPF patients (48 AE-IPF, 122 stable) and 70 controls at Shanghai Pulmonary...

The Mast Cell-Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Interplay at the Host-Microbe Interface

Mast cells are increasingly being recognized as crucial cells in the response of the organism to environmental agents. Interestingly, the ability of mast cells to sense and respond to external cues is modulated by the microenvironment that surrounds mast cells and influences their differentiation. The scenario that is emerging unveils a delicate equilibrium that balances the...

Activation of CD137 Signaling Enhances Vascular Calcification through c-Jun N-Terminal Kinase-Dependent Disruption of Autophagic Flux

Background. Vascular calcification is widespread and clinically significant, contributing to substantial morbidity and mortality. Calcifying vascular cells are partly derived from local vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), which can undergo chondrogenic or osteogenic differentiation under inflammatory environment. Recently, we have found activation of CD137 signaling accelerated...

IL-7 and IL-8 inhibit gamete interaction in the zona-free hamster egg sperm penetration assay

Current thought in reproductive endocrinology suggests hat endometriosis-associated subfertility may be the result of an adverse influence of activated immunocompetent cells on fertilization and embryo development. Inflammatory ediators such as interleukin-1 and tumour necrosis actor have been implicated in the pathophysiology of this process. The purpose of this study was to...

Turnour necrosis factor stimulates endothelin-1 gene expression in cultured bovine endothelial cells

We have studied the effect of human recombinant tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) on gene expression and production of endothelin-1 in cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells. TNF-α (10 and 100 ng ml−1) increased in a time dependent manner the preproendothelin-1 mRNA levels in respect to unstimulated endothelial cells. TNF-α induced endothelin-1 gene expression was associated...

Suppressive effect of TNF-α and IL-1 on alveolar fibroblast proliferation in sarcoidosis

The nature of soluble factors that regulate fibroblast proliferation have not been finally characterized. Our aim was to study the role of tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1 (IL-1) in the suppressive activity of alveolar macrophages on autologous lung fibroblasts proliferation in sarcoidosis. We found that supernatants recovered from alveolar macrophages...

Five steps in leukocyte extravasation in the microcirculation by chemoattractants

For in vivo study of the phenomena observed in vitro, PMN (polymorphonuclear leukocyte) extravasation was analysed quantitatively in the microcirculation of the hamster cheek pouch using a video system. Topical application of leukotriene B4 or N-formyl-methionylleucyl- phenylalanine increased dose dependently the number of PMNs adhering to the venules. Eighty to 90% of the...

Antibodies directed to antigens secreted by murine epithelioid macrophages modulate BCG-induced granulomata

The authors have previously shown that epithelioid cells isolated from mice secrete a factor, called macrophage deactivating factor (MDF), that promptly deactivates superoxide release by activated macrophages and neutrophils. In this paper some biological properties of a polyclonal rat antiserum directed to MDF and other substances secreted by these cells are described. The...

Glucocorticoids as cytokine inhibitors: role in neuroendocrine control and therapy of inflammatory diseases

Glucocorticoids are potent inhibitors of inflammation and endotoxic shock. This probably occurs through an inhibition of the synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokines as well as of many of their toxic activities. Therefore, endogenous glucocorticoids (GC) might represent a major mechanism in the control of cytokine mediated pathologies. GC inhibit the synthesis of cytokines in...

Bradykinin receptors in intestinal smooth muscles and their post-receptor events related to calcium

The effects of trifluoperazine and verapamil on bradykinin- and des-Arg9-bradykinin induced responses of isolated rat duodenum and guinea-pig ileum were investigated to elucidate post-bradykinin receptor events. Verapamil and trifluoperazine inhibited bradykinin induced relaxations and contractions and des-Arg9- bradykinin induced contractions in rat duodenum. Bradykinin induced...

Low molecular weight thymic factor inhibits histamine release from basophils

Low molecular weight thymic factor stimulates the suppressor function of T-lymphocytes, increases cAMP content (but not cGMP) in lymphocytes and inhibits histamine release from sensitized basophils. The mechanisms of LTF action are discussed.

Mechanism for the Increased Permeability in Endothelial Monolayers Induced by Elastase

The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism for the increase in endothelial permeability induced by human neutrophil elastase (HNE). Pretreatment of bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cells (BPAEC) with HNE(0-30 μg/ml) for 1 h produced a concentration dependent increase in 125I-albumin clearance. The effect was reversible and was not due to cytolysis. Pretreatment of...

Endothelin-1 Stimulates Monocytes in vitro to Release Chemotactic Activity Identified as Interleukin-8 and Monocyte Chemotactic Protein-1

In the present study we examined whether endothelin-1 stimulation of human monocytes causes release of chemotactic factors. It was found that monocytes released neutrophil- and monocyte-chemotactic activity in a dose- and time-dependent manner in response to ET-1. ET-1 did not show any chemotactic activity by itself. NCA was detected in monocyte supernatants in response to ET-1...

Anti- Schistosomular Activity of Human Monocytes/Macrophages in Response to Interleukin-3 and Granulocyte-Macrophage Colonystimulating Factor Stimulation

Human monocytes, co-incubated for 7 days in culture with GM-CSF or IL-3 but not with IFN-γ, exerted a variable schistosotnulicidal effect on Schistosoma mansoni parasites when grown in 96-well round-bottomed plates but not in flat-bottomed plates. Addition of LPS or IFN-γ or both, for the last 48 h did not enhance the cidal effect. Addition of LPS but not IFN-γ to the pre...