Fluids and Barriers of the CNS

https://fluidsbarrierscns.biomedcentral.com

List of Papers (Total 885)

Cerebrospinal fluid dynamics and intracranial pressure elevation in neurological diseases

The fine balance between the secretion, composition, volume and turnover of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is strictly regulated. However, during certain neurological diseases, this balance can be disrupted. A significant disruption to the normal CSF circulation can be life threatening, leading to increased intracranial pressure (ICP), and is implicated in hydrocephalus, idiopathic...

Analysis of convective and diffusive transport in the brain interstitium

Despite advances in in vivo imaging and experimental techniques, the nature of transport mechanisms in the brain remain elusive. Mathematical modelling verified using available experimental data offers a powerful tool for investigating hypotheses regarding extracellular transport of molecules in brain tissue. Here we describe a tool developed to aid in investigation of...

Cerebellar tonsil ectopia measurement in type I Chiari malformation patients show poor inter-operator reliability

Type 1 Chiari malformation (CM-I) has been historically defined by cerebellar tonsillar position (TP) greater than 3–5 mm below the foramen magnum (FM). Often, the radiographic findings are highly variable, which may influence the clinical course and patient outcome. In this study, we evaluate the inter-operator reliability (reproducibility) of MRI-based measurement of TP in CM-I...

Benchmarking in vitro tissue-engineered blood–brain barrier models

The blood–brain barrier (BBB) plays a key role in regulating transport into and out of the brain. With increasing interest in the role of the BBB in health and disease, there have been significant advances in the development of in vitro models. The value of these models to the research community is critically dependent on recapitulating characteristics of the BBB in humans or...

Elimination of substances from the brain parenchyma: efflux via perivascular pathways and via the blood–brain barrier

This review considers efflux of substances from brain parenchyma quantified as values of clearances (CL, stated in µL g−1 min−1). Total clearance of a substance is the sum of clearance values for all available routes including perivascular pathways and the blood–brain barrier. Perivascular efflux contributes to the clearance of all water-soluble substances. Substances leaving via...

Tunneling nanotubes evoke pericyte/endothelial communication during normal and tumoral angiogenesis

Nanotubular structures, denoted tunneling nanotubes (TNTs) have been described in recent times as involved in cell-to-cell communication between distant cells. Nevertheless, TNT-like, long filopodial processes had already been described in the last century as connecting facing, growing microvessels during the process of cerebral cortex vascularization and collateralization. Here...

Cerebral influx of Na + and Cl − as the osmotherapy-mediated rebound response in rats

Cerebral edema can cause life-threatening increase in intracranial pressure. Besides surgical craniectomy performed in severe cases, osmotherapy may be employed to lower the intracranial pressure by osmotic extraction of cerebral fluid upon intravenous infusion of mannitol or NaCl. A so-called rebound effect can, however, hinder continuous reduction in cerebral fluid by yet...

The role of plasmalemma vesicle-associated protein in pathological breakdown of blood–brain and blood–retinal barriers: potential novel therapeutic target for cerebral edema and diabetic macular edema

Breakdown of the blood–brain barrier (BBB) or inner blood–retinal barrier (BRB), induced by pathologically elevated levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) or other mediators, can lead to vasogenic edema and significant clinical problems such as neuronal morbidity and mortality, or vision loss. Restoration of the barrier function with corticosteroids in the brain, or...

Sex-specific differences in organic anion transporting polypeptide 1a4 (Oatp1a4) functional expression at the blood–brain barrier in Sprague–Dawley rats

Targeting endogenous blood–brain barrier (BBB) transporters such as organic anion transporting polypeptide 1a4 (Oatp1a4) can facilitate drug delivery for treatment of neurological diseases. Advancement of Oatp targeting for optimization of CNS drug delivery requires characterization of sex-specific differences in BBB expression and/or activity of this transporter. In this study...

Characteristics of the cerebrospinal fluid pressure waveform and craniospinal compliance in idiopathic intracranial hypertension subjects

Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is a condition of abnormally high intracranial pressure with an unknown etiology. The objective of this study is to characterize craniospinal compliance and measure the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure waveform as CSF is passively drained during a diagnostic and therapeutic lumbar puncture (LP) in IIH. Eighteen subjects who met the...

Pulsatile flow drivers in brain parenchyma and perivascular spaces: a resistance network model study

In animal models, dissolved compounds in the subarachnoid space and parenchyma have been found to preferentially transport through the cortex perivascular spaces (PVS) but the transport phenomena involved are unclear. In this study two hydraulic network models were used to predict fluid motion produced by blood vessel pulsations and estimate the contribution made to solute...

Extracellular vesicles: mediators and biomarkers of pathology along CNS barriers

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are heterogeneous, nano-sized vesicles that are shed into the blood and other body fluids, which disperse a variety of bioactive molecules (e.g., protein, mRNA, miRNA, DNA and lipids) to cellular targets over long and short distances. EVs are thought to be produced by nearly every cell type, however this review will focus specifically on EVs that...

Modeling and rescue of defective blood–brain barrier function of induced brain microvascular endothelial cells from childhood cerebral adrenoleukodystrophy patients

X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is caused by mutations in the ABCD1 gene. 40% of X-ALD patients will convert to the deadly childhood cerebral form (ccALD) characterized by increased permeability of the brain endothelium that constitutes the blood–brain barrier (BBB). Mutation information and molecular markers investigated to date are not predictive of conversion. Prior...

Do patients with schizophreniform and bipolar disorders show an intrathecal, polyspecific, antiviral immune response? A pilot study

We previously described inflammatory cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) alterations in a subgroup of patients with schizophreniform disorders and the synthesis of polyspecific intrathecal antibodies against different neurotropic infectious pathogens in some patients with bipolar disorders. Consequently, we have measured the prevalence of a positive MRZ reaction (MRZR)—a marker for a...

Do patients with schizophreniform and bipolar disorders show an intrathecal, polyspecific, antiviral immune response? A pilot study

We previously described inflammatory cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) alterations in a subgroup of patients with schizophreniform disorders and the synthesis of polyspecific intrathecal antibodies against different neurotropic infectious pathogens in some patients with bipolar disorders. Consequently, we have measured the prevalence of a positive MRZ reaction (MRZR)—a marker for a...

The opioid epidemic: a central role for the blood brain barrier in opioid analgesia and abuse

Opioids are currently the primary treatment method used to manage both acute and chronic pain. In the past two to three decades, there has been a surge in the use, abuse and misuse of opioids. The mechanism by which opioids relieve pain and induce euphoria is dependent on the drug crossing the blood–brain barrier and accessing the central nervous system. This suggests the blood...

The opioid epidemic: a central role for the blood brain barrier in opioid analgesia and abuse

Opioids are currently the primary treatment method used to manage both acute and chronic pain. In the past two to three decades, there has been a surge in the use, abuse and misuse of opioids. The mechanism by which opioids relieve pain and induce euphoria is dependent on the drug crossing the blood–brain barrier and accessing the central nervous system. This suggests the blood...

The opioid epidemic: a central role for the blood brain barrier in opioid analgesia and abuse

Opioids are currently the primary treatment method used to manage both acute and chronic pain. In the past two to three decades, there has been a surge in the use, abuse and misuse of opioids. The mechanism by which opioids relieve pain and induce euphoria is dependent on the drug crossing the blood–brain barrier and accessing the central nervous system. This suggests the blood...

The opioid epidemic: a central role for the blood brain barrier in opioid analgesia and abuse

Opioids are currently the primary treatment method used to manage both acute and chronic pain. In the past two to three decades, there has been a surge in the use, abuse and misuse of opioids. The mechanism by which opioids relieve pain and induce euphoria is dependent on the drug crossing the blood–brain barrier and accessing the central nervous system. This suggests the blood...

The opioid epidemic: a central role for the blood brain barrier in opioid analgesia and abuse

Opioids are currently the primary treatment method used to manage both acute and chronic pain. In the past two to three decades, there has been a surge in the use, abuse and misuse of opioids. The mechanism by which opioids relieve pain and induce euphoria is dependent on the drug crossing the blood–brain barrier and accessing the central nervous system. This suggests the blood...