Purinergic Signalling

https://link.springer.com/journal/11302

List of Papers (Total 268)

P2X7-mediated ATP secretion is accompanied by depletion of cytosolic ATP

ATP and its metabolites are important extracellular signal transmitters acting on purinergic P2 and P1 receptors. Most cells can actively secrete ATP in response to a variety of external stimuli such as gating of the P2X7 receptor. We used Yac-1 murine lymphoma cells to study P2X7-mediated ATP release. These cells co-express P2X7 and ADP-ribosyltransferase ARTC2, permitting...

A live cell NanoBRET binding assay allows the study of ligand-binding kinetics to the adenosine A3 receptor

There is a growing interest in understanding the binding kinetics of compounds that bind to G protein-coupled receptors prior to progressing a lead compound into clinical trials. The widely expressed adenosine A3 receptor (A3AR) has been implicated in a range of diseases including immune conditions, and compounds that aim to selectively target this receptor are currently under...

Point-of-care measurements reveal release of purines into venous blood of stroke patients

Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability. Here, we examine whether point-of-care measurement of the purines, adenosine, inosine and hypoxanthine, which are downstream metabolites of ATP, has potential to assist the diagnosis of stroke. In a prospective observational study, patients who were suspected of having had a stroke, within 4.5 h of symptom onset and still...

Administration of an antagonist of P2X7 receptor to EAE rats prevents a decrease of expression of claudin-5 in cerebral capillaries

Purinergic P2X receptors, when activated under pathological conditions, participate in induction of the inflammatory response and/or cell death. Both neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration represent hallmarks of multiple sclerosis (MS), an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system. In the current study, we examined whether P2X7R is expressed in brain microvasculature of...

P2Y2 and P2Y6 receptor activation elicits intracellular calcium responses in human adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal cells

Adipose tissue contains self-renewing multipotent cells termed mesenchymal stromal cells. In situ, these cells serve to expand adipose tissue by adipogenesis, but their multipotency has gained interest for use in tissue regeneration. Little is known regarding the repertoire of receptors expressed by adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (AD-MSCs). The purpose of this study...

A feasibility study into adenosine triphosphate measurement in exhaled breath condensate: a potential bedside method to monitor alveolar deformation

Recent research suggested an important role for pulmonary extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in the development of ventilation-induced lung injury. This injury is induced by mechanical deformation of alveolar epithelial cells, which in turn release ATP to the extracellular space. Measuring extracellular ATP in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) may be a non-invasive...

The involvement of purinergic signalling in obesity

Obesity is a growing worldwide health problem, with an alarming increasing prevalence in developed countries, caused by a dysregulation of energy balance. Currently, no wholly successful pharmacological treatments are available for obesity and related adverse consequences. In recent years, hints obtained from several experimental animal models support the notion that purinergic...

The potential of P2X7 receptors as a therapeutic target, including inflammation and tumour progression

Seven P2X ion channel nucleotide receptor subtypes have been cloned and characterised. P2X7 receptors (P2X7R) are unusual in that there are extra amino acids in the intracellular C terminus. Low concentrations of ATP open cation channels sometimes leading to cell proliferation, whereas high concentrations of ATP open large pores that release inflammatory cytokines and can lead to...

Divergent coronary flow responses to uridine adenosine tetraphosphate in atherosclerotic ApoE knockout mice

Uridine adenosine tetraphosphate (Up4A) exerts potent relaxation in porcine coronary arteries that is reduced following myocardial infarction, suggesting a crucial role for Up4A in the regulation of coronary flow (CF) in cardiovascular disorders. We evaluated the vasoactive effects of Up4A on CF in atherosclerosis using ApoE knockout (KO) mice ex vivo and in vivo. Functional...

Blood purine measurements as a rapid real-time indicator of reversible brain ischaemia

To preserve the disequilibrium between ATP and ADP necessary to drive cellular metabolism, enzymatic pathways rapidly convert ADP to adenosine and the downstream purines inosine and hypoxanthine. During ischaemia, these same pathways result in the production of purines. We performed a prospective observational study to test whether purine levels in arterial blood might correlate...

Modulation of the TGF-β1-induced epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) mediated by P1 and P2 purine receptors in MDCK cells

Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) occurs during embryogenesis or under pathological conditions such as hypoxia, injury, chronic inflammation, or tissue fibrosis. In renal tubular epithelial cells (MDCK), TGF-β1 induces EMT by reducing or increasing epithelial or mesenchymal marker expression, respectively. In this study, we confirmed that the cAMP analogues, 8-CPT-cAMP...

Purinergic signalling links mechanical breath profile and alveolar mechanics with the pro-inflammatory innate immune response causing ventilation-induced lung injury

Severe pulmonary infection or vigorous cyclic deformation of the alveolar epithelial type I (AT I) cells by mechanical ventilation leads to massive extracellular ATP release. High levels of extracellular ATP saturate the ATP hydrolysis enzymes CD39 and CD73 resulting in persistent high ATP levels despite the conversion to adenosine. Above a certain level, extracellular ATP...

Altered purinergic signaling in uridine adenosine tetraphosphate-induced coronary relaxation in swine with metabolic derangement

We previously demonstrated that uridine adenosine tetraphosphate (Up4A) induces potent and partially endothelium-dependent relaxation in the healthy porcine coronary microvasculature. We subsequently showed that Up4A-induced porcine coronary relaxation was impaired via downregulation of P1 receptors after myocardial infarction. In view of the deleterious effect of metabolic...

P2X7 receptor-pannexin 1 interaction mediates extracellular alpha-synuclein-induced ATP release in neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells

Abnormalities of alpha-synuclein (ASN), the main component of protein deposits (Lewy bodies), were observed in Parkinson’s disease (PD), dementia with Lewy bodies, Alzheimer’s disease, and other neurodegenerative disorders. These alterations include increase in the levels of soluble ASN oligomers in the extracellular space. Numerous works have identified several mechanisms of...

Plasmodium falciparum GFP-E-NTPDase expression at the intraerythrocytic stages and its inhibition blocks the development of the human malaria parasite

Plasmodium falciparum is the causative agent of the most dangerous form of malaria in humans. It has been reported that the P. falciparum genome encodes for a single ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (E-NTPDase), an enzyme that hydrolyzes extracellular tri- and di-phosphate nucleotides. The E-NTPDases are known for participating in invasion and as a virulence factor...

Conformational changes during human P2X7 receptor activation examined by structural modelling and cysteine-based cross-linking studies

The P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) is important in mediating a range of physiological functions and pathologies associated with tissue damage and inflammation and represents an attractive therapeutic target. However, in terms of their structure-function relationships, the mammalian P2X7Rs remain poorly characterised compared to some of their other P2XR counterparts. In this study...

A covalent antagonist for the human adenosine A2A receptor

The structure of the human A2A adenosine receptor has been elucidated by X-ray crystallography with a high affinity non-xanthine antagonist, ZM241385, bound to it. This template molecule served as a starting point for the incorporation of reactive moieties that cause the ligand to covalently bind to the receptor. In particular, we incorporated a fluorosulfonyl moiety onto...

Genetically dissecting P2rx7 expression within the central nervous system using conditional humanized mice

The purinergic P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) has attracted considerable interest as a potential target for various central nervous system (CNS) pathologies including affective and neurodegenerative disorders. To date, the distribution and cellular localization of the P2X7R in the brain are not fully resolved and a matter of debate mainly due to the limitations of existing tools. However...