PLOS ONE

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/

List of Papers (Total 202,524)

Shipping routes through core habitat of endangered sperm whales along the Hellenic Trench, Greece: Can we reduce collision risks?

The Mediterranean sperm whale population is listed as ‘Endangered”. The Hellenic Trench is the core habitat of the eastern Mediterranean sperm whale sub-population that numbers two to three hundred individuals. Major shipping routes running on or very close to the 1000 m depth contour along the Hellenic Trench are causing an unsustainable number of ship-strikes with sperm whales...

Tead1 is required for perinatal cardiomyocyte proliferation

Adult heart size is determined predominantly by the cardiomyocyte number and size. The cardiomyocyte number is determined primarily in the embryonic and perinatal period, as adult cardiomyocyte proliferation is restricted in comparison to that seen during the perinatal period. Recent evidence has implicated the mammalian Hippo kinase pathway as being critical in cardiomyocyte...

A systematic review of individual and community mitigation measures for prevention and control of chikungunya virus

Background Chikungunya is a mosquito-borne virus transmitted by mosquitoes from the Aedes genus. The virus, endemic to parts of Asia and Africa, has recently undergone an emergence in other parts of the world where it was previously not found including Indian Ocean Islands, Europe, the Western Pacific and the Americas. There is no vaccine against chikungunya virus, which means...

Evaporation of droplet in mid-air: Pure and binary droplets in single-axis acoustic levitator

Acoustic levitation method (ALM) is a container-less processing method with applications in various fields, including material processing, biology, and analytical chemistry. Because it is a container-less processing technique, ALM could prevent nucleation and contamination of materials being processed via contact with a container wall. It is well-known that evaporation of a...

Automatic diagnostics of tuberculosis using convolutional neural networks analysis of MODS digital images

Tuberculosis is an infectious disease that causes ill health and death in millions of people each year worldwide. Timely diagnosis and treatment is key to full patient recovery. The Microscopic Observed Drug Susceptibility (MODS) is a test to diagnose TB infection and drug susceptibility directly from a sputum sample in 7–10 days with a low cost and high sensitivity and...

Drug sensitivity prediction with high-dimensional mixture regression

This paper proposes a mixture regression model-based method for drug sensitivity prediction. The proposed method explicitly addresses two fundamental issues in drug sensitivity prediction, namely, population heterogeneity and feature selection pertaining to each of the subpopulations. The mixture regression model is estimated using the imputation-conditional consistency algorithm...

Simulating speech processing with cochlear implants: How does channel interaction affect learning in neural networks?

We introduce a novel machine learning approach for investigating speech processing with cochlear implants (CIs)—prostheses used to replace a damaged inner ear. Concretely, we use a simple perceptron and a deep convolutional network to classify speech spectrograms that are modified to approximate CI-delivered speech. Implant-delivered signals suffer from reduced spectral...

Clinical education alone is sufficient to increase resistance training exercise prescription

A large body of evidence demonstrates that resistance training has been ineffective for improving walking outcomes in adults with neurological conditions. However, evidence suggests that previous studies have not aligned resistance exercise prescription to muscle function when walking. The main aim of this study was to determine whether a training seminar for clinicians could...

Genetic heterogeneity and diversity of North American golden retrievers using a low density STR marker panel

Thirty-three autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) markers were used to evaluate genetic heterogeneity and diversity in 525 golden retrievers (GRs). This breed was selected because of its popularity and artificial selection for conformation vs. performance phenotypes. Seven additional STRs were used to evaluate the highly polymorphic dog leukocyte antigen (DLA) class I and class II...

Quality of life and its predictors among patients with chronic kidney disease: A hospital-based cross sectional study

Introduction Quality of life (QoL) is increasingly being considered as an important measure of how disease affects patients’ lives, especially for long-term diseases like chronic kidney disease (CKD). Even though there is no statistically significant association between stages of CKD and QoL, it is decreased in patients with early stages of the disease. Hence, this study aimed to...

Is infant neural sensitivity to vocal emotion associated with mother-infant relational experience?

An early understanding of others’ vocal emotions provides infants with a distinct advantage for eliciting appropriate care from caregivers and for navigating their social world. Consistent with this notion, an emerging literature suggests that a temporal cortical response to the prosody of emotional speech is observable in the first year of life. Furthermore, neural...

Isotopic variance among plant lipid homologues correlates with biodiversity patterns of their source communities

Plant diversity is important to human welfare worldwide, and this importance is exemplified in subtropical and tropical [(sub)tropical] African savannahs where regional biodiversity enhances the sustaining provision of basic ecosystem services available to millions of residents. Yet, there is a critical lack of knowledge about how savannahs respond to climate change. Here, we...

Characterization of intrathecal cerebrospinal fluid geometry and dynamics in cynomolgus monkeys (macaca fascicularis) by magnetic resonance imaging

Recent advancements have been made toward understanding the diagnostic and therapeutic potential of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and related hydrodynamics. Increased understanding of CSF dynamics may lead to improved detection of central nervous system (CNS) diseases and optimized delivery of CSF based CNS therapeutics, with many proposed therapeutics hoping to successfully treat or...

Reporting of conflicts of interest and of sponsorship of guidelines in anaesthesiology. A cross-sectional study

Guideline recommendations may be biased due to conflicts of interest (COI) of panel members and sponsorship of the guideline. Potential impact of COI, and their management, should be transparently reported. We analysed 110 guidelines published in ten anaesthesia journals from 2007 to June 2018. We report on the number (%) that 1) published COI disclosures; 2) in a distinct...

A case-control study of trace-element status and lung cancer in Appalachian Kentucky

Appalachian Kentucky (App KY) leads the nation in lung cancer incidence and mortality. Trace elements, such as As, have been associated with lung cancers in other regions of the country and we hypothesized that a population-based study would reveal higher trace element concentrations in App KY individuals with cancer compared to controls. Using toenail and drinking water trace...

Provir/Latitude 45 study: A step towards a multi-epitopic CTL vaccine designed on archived HIV-1 DNA and according to dominant HLA I alleles

One of the approaches by which the scientific community is seeking to cure HIV is the use of therapeutic vaccination. Previous studies have highlighted the importance of the virus-specific CD8+ T cell cytotoxic responses for the immune control of HIV and have oriented research on vaccine constructs based on CTL epitopes from circulating HIV-1 strains. The clinical trials with...

Perceived ease of flavored e-cigarette use and e-cigarette use progression among youth never tobacco users

Background There is an increased need to understand how e-cigarette flavors may contribute to e-cigarette uptake and use among youth. We examined the relationship between perceived ease of flavored e-cigarette use and e-cigarette use susceptibility and progression among a nationally representative sample of U.S. youth never tobacco users. Methods The wave 1 (2013–2014) and wave 2...

Mycobacteriophage CRB2 defines a new subcluster in mycobacteriophage classification

Mycobacteriophages are viruses -mostly temperates- that infect Mycobacterium smegmatis and sometimes Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Mycobacteriophages are grouped in clusters on the basis of the overall nucleotide sequence homology, being further divided in subclusters as more mycobacteriophage genomes are sequenced and annotated. As part of our on-going screening for novel isolates...

New tomographic contribution to characterizing mesosaurid congenital scoliosis

The presence of a pathology in the vertebral column of the early Permian mesosaurid specimen ZPAL R VII/1, being one of the oldest amniotic occurrences of congenital scoliosis caused by a hemivertebra, was recently recognized. Here we provide CT data to further characterize the phenomenon. The affected hemivertebra is wedged (incarcerated) between the preceding and succeeding...

Affective responses to uncertain real-world outcomes: Sentiment change on Twitter

We use data from Twitter.com to study the interplay between affect and expectations about uncertain outcomes. In two studies, we obtained tweets about candidates in the 2014 US Senate elections and tweets about National Football League (NFL) teams in the 2014/2015 NFL season. We chose these events because a) their outcomes are highly uncertain and b) they attract a lot of...

Lenvatinib plus anti-PD-1 antibody combination treatment activates CD8+ T cells through reduction of tumor-associated macrophage and activation of the interferon pathway

Lenvatinib is a multiple receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor targeting mainly vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptors. We investigated the immunomodulatory activities of lenvatinib in the tumor microenvironment and its mechanisms of enhanced antitumor activity when combined with a programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) blockade. Antitumor...

Prevalence and distribution of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes among HIV infected women in Lomé, Togo

Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the most common sexually transmitted disease worldwide, and it particularly affects people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of HPV and to describe HPV genotypes in HIV-1 infected women in Lomé, Togo. From September 2014 to September 2015, a cross-sectional study was conducted in two...

Undernutrition among tribal children in Palghar district, Maharashtra, India

Background Maharashtra is the richest Indian state. However, prevalence of undernutrition is unacceptably high in Maharashtra, particularly among the tribal children. In 2005, child malnutrition claimed as many as 718 lives in one single district namely Palghar. Even after a decade of double-digit economic growth, in 2016, more than 600 children died due to under-nutrition in the...

Gonadotropin regulation of ankyrin-repeat and SOCS-box protein 9 (ASB9) in ovarian follicles and identification of binding partners

Ankyrin-repeat and SOCS-box protein 9 (ASB9) is a member of the large SOCS-box containing proteins family and acts as the specific substrate recognition component of E3 ubiquitin ligases in the process of ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. We previously identified ASB9 as a differentially expressed gene in granulosa cells (GC) of bovine ovulatory follicles. This study...

Radiotherapy resistance acquisition in Glioblastoma. Role of SOCS1 and SOCS3

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a poor prognosis type of tumour due to its resistance to chemo and radiotherapy. SOCS1 and SOCS3 have been associated with tumour progression and response to treatments in different kinds of cancers, including GBM. In this study, cell lines of IDH-wildtype GBM from primary cultures were obtained, and the role of SOCS1 and SOCS3 in the radiotherapy...