PLOS ONE

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/

List of Papers (Total 204,405)

Using audit and feedback to increase clinician adherence to clinical practice guidelines in brain injury rehabilitation: A before and after study

Objective This study evaluated whether frequent (fortnightly) audit and feedback cycles over a sustained period of time (>12 months) increased clinician adherence to recommended guidelines in acquired brain injury rehabilitation. Design A before and after study design. Setting A metropolitan inpatient brain injury rehabilitation unit. Participants Clinicians; medical, nursing and...

Speech-in-noise representation in the aging midbrain and cortex: Effects of hearing loss

Age-related deficits in speech-in-noise understanding pose a significant problem for older adults. Despite the vast number of studies conducted to investigate the neural mechanisms responsible for these communication difficulties, the role of central auditory deficits, beyond peripheral hearing loss, remains unclear. The current study builds upon our previous work that...

The Saleema initiative in Sudan to abandon female genital mutilation: Outcomes and dose response effects

Purpose The overall goal of the Saleema Initiative in Sudan is to promote long-term abandonment of female genital mutilation and cutting (FGM) through a contribution to changing social norms, attitudes, and intentions related to the practice. The initiative aims to create positive cultural associations with a girl remaining uncut, a new social norm. Saleema hypothesizes that...

Possible causes of divergent population trends in sympatric African herbivores

Sympatric herbivores experience similar environmental conditions but can vary in their population trends. Identifying factors causing these differences could assist conservation efforts aimed at maintaining fully functional ecosystems. From 1996–2013, tsessebe and wildebeest populations in the Okavango Delta, Botswana, declined by 73% and 90%, respectively, whereas zebra...

Improvement of arthroscopic surgical performance using a new wide-angle arthroscope in the surgical training

Background We have developed a new arthroscope with a field of view of 150°. This arthroscope requires less motion to maneuver and exhibits reduced optical error. It also improves how novices learn arthroscopy. We hypothesized that the surgical performance with this arthroscope is superior to that with a conventional arthroscope. This study tested the hypothesis by using motion...

Transfusion of standard-issue packed red blood cells induces pulmonary vasoconstriction in critically ill patients after cardiac surgery—A randomized, double-blinded, clinical trial

Background Experimental and volunteer studies have reported pulmonary vasoconstriction during transfusion of packed red blood cells (PRBCs) stored for prolonged periods. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate whether transfusion of PRBCs stored over 21 days (standard-issue, siPRBCs) increases pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) to a greater extent than transfusion of PRBCs...

Is the PrePex device an alternative for surgical male circumcision in adolescents ages 13–17 years? Findings from routine service delivery during active surveillance in Zimbabwe

Background Male circumcision devices have the potential to accelerate adolescent voluntary medical male circumcision roll-out. Here, we present findings on safety, acceptability and satisfaction from active surveillance of PrePex implementation among 618 adolescent males (13–17 years) circumcised in Zimbabwe. Methods The first 618 adolescents consecutively circumcised from...

Identification of soil bacteria capable of utilizing a corn ethanol fermentation byproduct

A commercial corn ethanol production byproduct (syrup) was used as a bacterial growth medium with the long-term aim to repurpose the resulting microbial biomass as a protein supplement in aquaculture feeds. Anaerobic batch reactors were used to enrich for soil bacteria metabolizing the syrup as the sole nutrient source over an eight-day period with the goal of obtaining pure...

Determination of essential phenotypic elements of clusters in high-dimensional entities—DEPECHE

Technological advances have facilitated an exponential increase in the amount of information that can be derived from single cells, necessitating new computational tools that can make such highly complex data interpretable. Here, we introduce DEPECHE, a rapid, parameter free, sparse k-means-based algorithm for clustering of multi- and megavariate single-cell data. In a number of...

Prostate cancer awareness, case-finding, and early diagnosis: Interviews with undiagnosed men in Australia

Previous research in Victoria, Australia, found differences in prostate cancer outcomes in regional and metropolitan areas. This investigation of undiagnosed men in regional areas and a metropolitan area of South Australia sought their perspectives on prostate cancer. Our aim was to learn whether men who had not been diagnosed could shed light on why men outside metropolitan...

Renal imaging in 199 Dutch patients with Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome: Screening compliance and outcome

Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome is associated with an increased risk for renal cell carcinoma. Surveillance is recommended, but the optimal imaging method and screening interval remain to be defined. The main aim of our study was to evaluate the outcomes of RCC surveillance to get insight in the safety of annual US in these patients. Surveillance data and medical records of 199 patients...

Enhancement of HGF-induced tubulogenesis by endothelial cell-derived GDNF

Tubulogenesis, the organization of epithelial cells into tubular structures, is an essential step during renal organogenesis as well as during the regeneration process of renal tubules after injury. In the present study, endothelial cell-derived factors that modulate tubule formation were examined using an in vitro human tubulogenesis system. When human renal proximal tubular...

Projections of Ebola outbreak size and duration with and without vaccine use in Équateur, Democratic Republic of Congo, as of May 27, 2018

As of May 27, 2018, 6 suspected, 13 probable and 35 confirmed cases of Ebola virus disease (EVD) had been reported in Équateur Province, Democratic Republic of Congo. We used reported case counts and time series from prior outbreaks to estimate the total outbreak size and duration with and without vaccine use. We modeled Ebola virus transmission using a stochastic branching...

The effect of admitting fault versus shifting blame on expectations for others to do the same

A wealth of research has investigated how and why people cast blame. However, less is known about blame-shifting (i.e., blaming someone else for one’s own failures) and how exposure to a blame-shifting agent might lead to expectations that other agents will also shift blame. The present research tested whether exposure to a blame-shifting (versus responsibility-taking) agent...

Neuroreceptor kinetics in rats repeatedly exposed to quinpirole as a model for OCD

Background Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic, incapacitating, early onset psychiatric disorder that is characterized by obsessions and compulsions originating from a disturbance in the cortico-striato-thalamico-cortical circuit. We implemented the preclinical quinpirole (QP) rat model for compulsive checking in OCD to analyse the behaviour and visualize the D2R...

Iron deficiency anemia, population health and frailty in a modern Portuguese skeletal sample

Introduction Portugal underwent significant political, demographic and epidemiological transitions during the 20th century resulting in migration to urban areas with subsequent overcrowding and issues with water sanitation. This study investigates population health during these transitions and interprets results within a framework of recent history and present-day public health...

A mass sacrifice of children and camelids at the Huanchaquito-Las Llamas site, Moche Valley, Peru

Here we report the results of excavation and interdisciplinary study of the largest child and camelid sacrifice known from the New World. Stratigraphy, associated artifacts, and radiocarbon dating indicate that it was a single mass killing of more than 140 children and over 200 camelids directed by the Chimú state, c. AD 1450. Preliminary DNA analysis indicates that both boys and...

Cost-effectiveness analysis of an innovative model of care for chronic wounds patients

Current provision of services for the care of chronic wounds in Australia is disjointed and costly. There is large variability in the way that services are provided, and little evidence regarding the cost-effectiveness of a specialist model of care for treatment and management. A decision-analytic model to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a specialist wound care clinic as...

Human disturbance impacts the integrity of sacred church forests, Ethiopia

Land-use change can have profound effects on forest communities, compromising seedling recruitment and growth, and long-term persistence of forests on the landscape. Continued forest conversion to agriculture causes forest fragmentation which decreases forest size, increases edge effects and forest isolation, all of which negatively impact forest health. These fragmentation...

Contact with adult hen affects development of caecal microbiota in newly hatched chicks

Chickens in commercial production are hatched in a clean hatchery environment in the absence of any contact with adult hens. However, Gallus gallus evolved to be hatched in a nest in contact with an adult hen which may act as a donor of gut microbiota. In this study, we therefore addressed the issue of microbiota development in newly hatched chickens with or without contact with...

Altruistic decisions are influenced by the allocation of monetary incentives in a pain-sharing game

Background Altruistic behavior is essential to the sustainability of society, but our current understanding of its underlying motivation is limited. In addition to the intrinsic motives to help others, based on empathy, extrinsic motives such as monetary incentives and social reputation influence prosociality. The purpose of this study was to examine the underlying motivations of...

Validation of the Spanish-language Cardiff Anomalous Perception Scale

The Cardiff Anomalous Perceptions Scale (CAPS) is a psychometric measure of hallucinatory experience. It has been widely used in English and used in initial studies in Spanish but a full validation study has not yet been published. We report a validation study of the Spanish-language CAPS, conducted in both Spain and Colombia to cover both European and Latin American Spanish. The...

“She’s gone now.” A mixed methods analysis of the experiences and perceptions around the deaths of children who died unexpectedly in health care facilities in Cape Town, South Africa

Purpose The sudden death of a child is a catastrophic event for both the family and the healthcare workers involved. Confidential enquiries provide a biomedical depiction of the processes and quality of care delivered and drive improvements in care. However, these rarely include an assessment of the patient/caregiver experience which is increasingly regarded as a key measure of...

Influence of distance, area, and cultural context in active commuting: Continental and insular children

Commuting by walking or cycling is a way to increase physical activity levels. The objective of this article was to determine the modes of commuting to school and the distance and time of the way to school among children from Easter Island and from the mainland (Valparaíso), in Chile. A total of 666 children and adolescents aged 10 to 18 years old (208 from Easter Island and 458...

A five-gene signature predicts overall survival of patients with papillary renal cell carcinoma

Background The present study aims to investigate the gene expression changes in papillary renal cell carcinoma(pRCC) and screen several genes and associated pathways of papillary renal cell carcinoma progression. Methods The papillary renal cell carcinoma RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) data set was downloaded from TCGA (The Cancer Genome Atlas). We identified the differentially...