PLOS ONE

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/

List of Papers (Total 202,517)

Evaluation of preclinical efficacy of everolimus and pasireotide in thyroid cancer cell lines and xenograft models

Background Signaling through mTOR and somatostatin pathway is implicated in thyroid cancer development. Method We evaluated everolimus, an mTOR inhibitor and pasireotide, a multi receptor somatostatin analogue as potential therapy of thyroid cancer focusing on the in vitro and in vivo efficacy, as well as possible mechanism to explain any observed interaction. Results Both...

The per-patient costs of HIV services in South Africa: Systematic review and application in the South African HIV Investment Case

Background In economic analyses of HIV interventions, South Africa is often used as a case in point, due to the availability of good epidemiological and programme data and the global relevance of its epidemic. Few analyses however use locally relevant cost data. We reviewed available cost data as part of the South African HIV Investment Case, a modelling exercise to inform the...

Myc-induced nuclear antigen constrains a latent intestinal epithelial cell-intrinsic anthelmintic pathway

Expulsion of parasitic gastrointestinal nematodes requires diverse effector mechanisms coordinated by a Th2-type response. The evolutionarily conserved JmjC protein; Myc Induced Nuclear Antigen (Mina) has been shown to repress IL4, a key Th2 cytokine, suggesting Mina may negatively regulate nematode expulsion. Here we report that expulsion of the parasitic nematode Trichuris...

Long-term outcome of hypofractionated intensity-modulated radiotherapy using TomoTherapy for localized prostate cancer: A retrospective study

Background Recently, the clinical outcome of prostate cancer treated by hypofractionated radiation therapy has been reported. However, there are few reports from Japan. In Hidaka Hospital, hypofractionated intensity-modulated radiotherapy (HIMRT) for prostate cancer was initiated in 2007. The purpose of this study is to analyze the long-term outcome. Methods Ninety-two patients...

Tweeting about public health policy: Social media response to the UK Government’s announcement of a Parliamentary vote on draft standardised packaging regulations

Background Standardised tobacco packaging has been, and remains, a contentious policy globally, attracting corporate, public health, political, media and popular attention. In January 2015, the UK Government announced it would vote on draft regulations for the policy before the May 2015 General Election. We explored reactions to the announcement on Twitter, in comparison with an...

Reasons for formula feeding among rural Bangladeshi mothers: A qualitative exploration

In Bangladesh the exclusive breastfeeding rate remains low and prelacteal, formula and bottle feeding is increasing. This study aims to explore reasons behind infant formula feeding practices from mothers, caregivers, and health care provider’s perspective. This was a qualitative study carried out in four sub-districts of Sylhet and Jessore of rural Bangladesh. Data were...

Development of novel predictive miRNA/target gene pathways for colorectal cancer distance metastasis to the liver using a bioinformatic approach

Background Liver metastases are the major cause of colorectal cancer (CRC)-related deaths. However, there is no reliable clinical predictor for CRC progression to liver metastasis. In this study, we investigated possible predictors (miRNAs and biomarkers) for clinical application. Methodology The Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) datasets GSE49355, GSE41258 and GSE81558 for genes and...

Impact of miR-223-3p and miR-2909 on inflammatory factors IL-6, IL-1ß, and TNF-α, and the TLR4/TLR2/NF-κB/STAT3 signaling pathway induced by lipopolysaccharide in human adipose stem cells

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules that play an important role in the regulation of gene expression related to inflammatory responses. Human adipose stem cells are characterized by pluripotent differentiation potential and isolated from adipose tissues. These cells regulate inflammation mainly by interacting with immune cells and affecting the secretion of...

Genome wide association study identifies novel single nucleotide polymorphic loci and candidate genes involved in soybean sudden death syndrome resistance

Fusarium virguliforme is a soil borne root pathogen that causes sudden death syndrome (SDS) in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill]. Once the fungus invades the root xylem tissues, the pathogen secretes toxins that cause chlorosis and necrosis in foliar tissues leading to defoliation, flower and pod drop and eventually death of plants. Resistance to F. virguliforme in soybean is...

Efficacy of Sphincter Control Training (SCT) in the treatment of premature ejaculation, a new cognitive behavioral approach: A parallel-group randomized, controlled trial

Introduction Current evidence suggests that Cognitive Behavioral therapy (CBT) has a limited role in the contemporary management of premature ejaculation (PE). Aim The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of a new CBT for the PE called Sphincter Control Training (SCT) in combination with a masturbation aid device. Methods The present study included 35 patients’ that...

Mapping and size estimates of female sex workers in Cameroon: Toward informed policy for design and implementation in the national HIV program

Background Due to high HIV prevalence among Female Sex Workers (FSWs) in Cameroon (36.5%), this population is especially vulnerable to HIV acquisition and transmission nationwide. Though being prioritized in the national HIV response, it would be relevant to generate statistics on the number of FSWs in order to guide HIV interventions among FSWs. Our objective was to estimate the...

Molecular characterization of Histomonas meleagridis exoproteome with emphasis on protease secretion and parasite-bacteria interaction

The exoproteome of parasitic protists constitutes extracellular proteins that play a fundamental role in host-parasite interactions. Lytic factors, especially secreted proteases, are capable of modulating tissue invasion, thereby aggravating host susceptibility. Despite the important role of exoproteins during infection, the exoproteomic data on Histomonas meleagridis are non...

Behavioural responses of humpback whales to food-related chemical stimuli

Baleen whales face the challenge of finding patchily distributed food in the open ocean. Their relatively well-developed olfactory structures suggest that they could identify the specific odours given off by planktonic prey such as krill aggregations. Like other marine predators, they may also detect dimethyl sulfide (DMS), a chemical released in areas of high marine productivity...

Estimating the prevalence of hepatitis C among intravenous drug users in upper middle income countries: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Aim This systematic review and meta-analysis characterizes the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among intravenous drug users (IDUs) in upper middle-income countries. Methods Five databases were searched from 1990–2016 for studies that took place in countries with a GDP per capita of $7,000 to $13,000 USD. The data extraction was performed based on information...

Linking the foraging behavior of three bee species to pollen dispersal and gene flow

Foraging behaviors that impact gene flow can guide the design of pollinator strategies to mitigate gene flow. Reduced gene flow is expected to minimize the impact of genetically engineered (GE) crops on feral and natural populations and to facilitate the coexistence of different agricultural markets. The goal of this study is to link foraging behavior to gene flow and identify...

Visualization of basilar artery atherosclerotic plaques by conventional T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging: A case-control study

Objective In vivo visualization of intracranial atherosclerotic plaque has been performed only with high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (HRMR). We investigated whether atherosclerotic plaque of the basilar artery (BA) can be identified in conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods Patients with acute ischemic stroke who had BA stenosis (“symptomatic BAA”) were...

The fecal, oral, and skin microbiota of children with Chagas disease treated with benznidazole

Background Chagas disease is still prevalent in rural areas of South America. In endemic areas of Bolivia, school children are screened for the program of Chagas disease eradication of the Ministry of Health, and positive children are treated. Here, we compared the fecal, oral and skin microbiomes of children with or without Chagas disease, and before and after benznidazol...

Molecular analysis of small tissue samples obtained via transbronchial lung biopsy using radial probe endobronchial ultrasound

Background Radial probe endobronchial ultrasound using a guide sheath (EBUS-GS) is used to diagnose peripheral lung cancer. The aim was to identify the accuracy of molecular analysis that were performed with EBUS-GS specimens in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Method From December 2015 to September 2017, we retrospectively studied 91 patients with peripheral...

Characteristics of the tree shrew gut virome

The tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri) has been proposed as an alternative laboratory animal to primates in biomedical research in recent years. However, characteristics of the tree shrew gut virome remain unclear. In this study, the metagenomic analysis method was used to identify the features of gut virome from fecal samples of this animal. Results showed that 5.80% of sequence...

Pig as a large animal model for posterior fossa surgery in oto-neurosurgery: A cadaveric study

This study proposes a practical model for a new approach to the posterior fossa in common domestic pigs. Several surgical procedures can be simulated in the nonliving pig model, including soft tissue dissection, drilling of temporal bone, dural incision, access to the cerebellopontine angle, exposure of cranial nerves and drilling of the internal auditory canal. The pig model...

Effective delivery of the anti-mycobacterial peptide NZX in mesoporous silica nanoparticles

Background Intracellular delivery of antimicrobial agents by nanoparticles, such as mesoporous silica particles (MSPs), offers an interesting strategy to treat intracellular infections. In tuberculosis (TB), Mycobacterium tuberculosis avoids components of the immune system by residing primarily inside alveolar macrophages, which are the desired target for TB therapy. Methods and...

Narrow-wide row planting pattern improves the light environment and seed yields of intercrop species in relay intercropping system

Different planting patterns affect the light interception of intercrops under intercropping conditions. Here we revealed that narrow-wide-row relay-intercropping improves the light interception across maize leaves in wide rows (60cm) and narrow rows (40cm), accelerated the biomass production of intercrop-species and compensated the slight maize yield loss by considerably...