PLOS ONE

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/

List of Papers (Total 204,402)

Effects of larval density on dispersal and fecundity of western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

The western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera (LeConte) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is an economically important pest of corn in the northern United States. Some populations have developed resistance to management strategies including transgenic corn that produces insecticidal toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). Knowledge of insect...

Acetylcholine-treated murine dendritic cells promote inflammatory lung injury

In recent years a non-neuronal cholinergic system has been described in immune cells, which is often usually activated during the course of inflammatory processes. To date, it is known that Acetylcholine (ACh), a neurotransmitter extensively expressed in the airways, not only induces bronchoconstriction, but also promotes a set of changes usually associated with the induction of...

Detoxification therapy of traditional Chinese medicine for genital tract high-risk human papillomavirus infection: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Background Persistence of high-risk human papillomavirus (hr-HPV) infections is the most critical risk factor for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cervical cancer (CC). Treatment of persistent oncogenic HPV-positive women after 12–24 months follow-up is still controversy. Detoxification therapy of Chinese medicine (DTCM) has been conducted recently. However, the...

Evaluation of GBLUP, BayesB and elastic net for genomic prediction in Chinese Simmental beef cattle

Chinese Simmental beef cattle are the most economically important cattle breed in China. Estimated breeding values for growth, carcass, and meat quality traits are commonly used as selection criteria in animal breeding. The objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of alternative statistical methods for the estimation of genomic breeding values. Analyses of the...

Factors associated with public knowledge of and attitudes to dementia: A cross-sectional study

Introduction Dementia is a major public health concern but one that continues to be stigmatised. We examine lay knowledge of dementia and attitudes to people with dementia as potential precursors of public anxiety, focusing on the social characteristics associated with (a) the formation of these attitudes, and (b) the perception of the need for restriction and control for people...

On optimal and near-optimal shapes of external shading of windows in apartment buildings

We studied previously optimal shape of external shading of windows in a cellular office with an outer edge modeled by a non-uniform rational basis spline (NURBS) curve whose control points were placed uniformly around western fin, overhang and eastern fin of the window, and whose depths were allowed to vary independently. We observed there that for each climate considered in the...

Neoadjuvant therapy versus upfront surgery for potentially resectable pancreatic cancer: A Markov decision analysis

Background Neoadjuvant therapy has emerged as an alternative treatment strategy for potentially resectable pancreatic cancer. In the absence of large randomized controlled trials offering a direct comparison, this study aims to use Markov decision analysis to compare efficacy of traditional surgery first (SF) and neoadjuvant treatment (NAT) pathways for potentially resectable...

The endogenous cardiotonic steroid Marinobufagenin and decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate at follow-up in patients with arterial hypertension

Background Marinobufagenin (MBG) is an endogenous cardiotonic steroid (CTS) that inhibits the Na+/K+-ATPase. Human MBG is significantly increased in end-stage renal disease and immunization against MBG attenuates cardiovascular fibrosis in a rat model of uremic cardiomyopathy. Mineralocorticoid antagonists (MRA) block MBG binding sites and decrease proteinuria in chronic kidney...

Real-time adaptive planning method for radiotherapy treatment delivery for prostate cancer patients, based on a library of plans accounting for possible anatomy configuration changes

Background and purpose In prostate cancer treatment with external beam radiation therapy (EBRT), prostate motion and internal changes in tissue distribution can lead to a decrease in plan quality. In most currently used planning methods, the uncertainties due to prostate motion are compensated by irradiating a larger treatment volume. However, this could cause underdosage of the...

Validity of inertial sensor based 3D joint kinematics of static and dynamic sport and physiotherapy specific movements

3D joint kinematics can provide important information about the quality of movements. Optical motion capture systems (OMC) are considered the gold standard in motion analysis. However, in recent years, inertial measurement units (IMU) have become a promising alternative. The aim of this study was to validate IMU-based 3D joint kinematics of the lower extremities during different...

Influence of Crohn’s disease related polymorphisms in innate immune function on ileal microbiome

We have previously identified NOD2 genotype and inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) phenotype, as associated with shifts in the ileal microbiome (“dysbiosis”) in a patient cohort. Here we report an integrative analysis of an expanded number of Crohn's disease (CD) related genetic defects in innate immune function (NOD2, ATG16L1, IRGM, CARD9, XBP1, ORMDL3) and composition of the...

Improving preterm newborn identification in low-resource settings with machine learning

Background Globally, preterm birth is the leading cause of neonatal death with estimated prevalence and associated mortality highest in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Accurate identification of preterm infants is important at the individual level for appropriate clinical intervention as well as at the population level for informed policy decisions and resource...

Multispectral imaging and unmanned aerial systems for cotton plant phenotyping

This paper demonstrates the application of aerial multispectral images in cotton plant phenotyping. Four phenotypic traits (plant height, canopy cover, vegetation index, and flower) were measured from multispectral images captured by a multispectral camera on an unmanned aerial system. Data were collected on eight different days from two fields. Ortho-mosaic and digital elevation...

Fluorescent reporter assays provide direct, accurate, quantitative measurements of MGMT status in human cells

The DNA repair protein O6-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) strongly influences the effectiveness of cancer treatment with chemotherapeutic alkylating agents, and MGMT status in cancer cells could potentially contribute to tailored therapies for individual patients. However, the promoter methylation and immunohistochemical assays presently used for measuring MGMT in...

Development and validation of Yatt Suicide Attitude Scale (YSAS) in Malaysia

Introduction Despite suicide rate becoming a growing trend in research locally and globally, there is no standard measuring instrument developed in Malaysia. The aim of this study is to establish the first ever Malay version of suicide screening tool that is suitable and fit with multiracial and complex culture of Malaysia. Methods This study comprises of three phases, namely (1...

A computational scheme for internal models not requiring precise system parameters

Utilization by humans of a precise and adaptable internal model of the dynamics of the body in generating movements is a well-supported concept. The prevailing opinion is that such an internal model ceaselessly develops through long-term repetition and accumulation in the central nervous system (CNS). However, a long-term learning process would not be absolutely necessary for the...

Length of stay following cesarean sections: A population based study in the Friuli Venezia Giulia region (North-Eastern Italy), 2005-2015

Background Births by cesarean section (CS) usually require longer recovery time, and as a result women remain hospitalized longer following CS than vaginal delivery (VD). A number of strategies have been proposed to reduce avoidable health care costs associated with childbirth. Among these, the containment of length of hospital stay (LoS) has been identified as an important...

Objective measurement of tummy time in infants (0-6 months): A validation study

The 2017 Australian and Canadian 24-hour movement guidelines recommend infants receive 30 minutes of tummy time daily. Currently, there are no validated objective measurement tools or devices to assess tummy time. The purpose of this study was to: 1) test the practicality of using devices on infants as an objective measure of tummy time, and 2) test the accuracy of developed...

Trends in global shark attacks

Shark attacks are a global phenomenon that attracts widespread attention and publicity, often with negative outcomes for shark populations. Despite the widespread perceptions of shark attacks, trends in human water activities and shark populations are both dynamic, resulting in variable rates of shark attacks over space and time. Understanding variable trends in shark attacks may...

Genetic risk assessment of thrombophilia in patients with adverse obstetric outcomes

Objectives To investigate the incidence of inherited thrombophilias in patients with adverse obstetric outcomes and to compare detection rates of thrombophilias between standard blood tests and a novel genetic test. Methods This is a case-control prospective study performed in Hospital Sant Joan de Déu in Barcelona, Spain. Cases had a history of intrauterine growth restriction...

3500 years of shellfish mariculture on the Northwest Coast of North America

Ancient systems of mariculture were foundations of social-ecological systems of many coastal Indigenous Peoples. However, since such systems either do not leave tangible remains in the archaeological record, and/or are hard to date, we know little about their development and use. Clam gardens, traditional mariculture features located within the intertidal zone along the Northwest...

Transcription factor Sp4 is required for hyperalgesic state persistence

Understanding how painful hypersensitive states develop and persist beyond the initial hours to days is critically important in the effort to devise strategies to prevent and/or reverse chronic painful states. Changes in nociceptor transcription can alter the abundance of nociceptive signaling elements, resulting in longer-term change in nociceptor phenotype. As a result...

Applicability of personal laser scanning in forestry inventory

Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) technology has been widely used in forestry surveys in the form of airborne laser scanning (ALS), terrestrial laser scanning (TLS), and mobile laser scanning (MLS). The acquisition of important basic tree parameters (e.g., diameter at breast height and tree position) in forest inventory did not solve the problem of low measurement efficiency or...

Most UK scientists who publish extremely highly-cited papers do not secure funding from major public and charity funders: A descriptive analysis

The UK is one of the largest funders of health research in the world, but little is known about how health funding is spent. Our study explores whether major UK public and charitable health research funders support the research of UK-based scientists producing the most highly-cited research. To address this question, we searched for UK-based authors of peer-reviewed papers that...

Poor supply chain management and stock-outs of point-of-care diagnostic tests in Upper East Region’s primary healthcare clinics, Ghana

Introduction Several supply chain components are important to sustain point-of-care (POC) testing services in rural settings. To evaluate the availability of POC diagnostic tests in rural Ghana’s primary healthcare (PHC) clinics, we conducted an audit of the supply chain management for POC diagnostic services in rural Upper East Region’s (UER) PHC clinics, Ghana to determine the...