PLOS ONE

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/

List of Papers (Total 202,517)

Role of smooth muscle cell p53 in pulmonary arterial hypertension

Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterized by remodeling and narrowing of the pulmonary arteries, which lead to elevation of right ventricular pressure, heart failure, and death. Proliferation of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) is thought to be central to the pathogenesis of PAH, although the underlying mechanisms are still being explored. The protein...

The first isolation of Clostridium difficile RT078/ST11 from pigs in China

We investigated the molecular characteristics and antimicrobial susceptibility of Clostridium difficile isolated from animals in China. We obtained 538 rectal swabs from pigs, chickens and ducks in 5 provinces during 2015 and 2016. C. difficile isolates were characterized by detection of toxin genes, multilocus sequence typing and ribotyping. And antimicrobial susceptibility...

Assessment of N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide level in screening for atrial fibrillation in primary health care

Background Atrial fibrillation (AF), an important cause of thromboembolic events, is often silent and intermittent, thus presenting a diagnostic challenge. The aim of this study was to assess whether the plasma level of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) is related to the presence of AF and thereby might be used to facilitate screening programs for AF in primary...

Task constraints and stepping movement of fast-pitch softball hitting

This study aims to clarify the relationship between task constraints and the preparatory movement of fast-pitch softball batters in Japan for three different competition categories, namely high school, college, and league. As task constraints, we focused on the temporal and tool constraints and evaluated preparatory movements using initiation time and step duration of the...

The dimensionality and latent structure of mental health difficulties and wellbeing in early adolescence

Research with adults and older adolescents suggests a general factor may underlie both mental health difficulties and wellbeing. However, the classical bifactor model commonly used to demonstrate this general trait has recently been criticised when a unidimensional structure is not supported. Furthermore, research is lacking in this area with children and early adolescents. We...

Temporal dynamics of bacterial and fungal communities during the infection of Brassica rapa roots by the protist Plasmodiophora brassicae

The temporal dynamics of rhizosphere and root microbiota composition was compared between healthy and infected Chinese cabbage plants by the pathogen Plasmodiophora brassicae. When inoculated with P. brassicae, disease was measured at five sampling dates from early root hair infection to late gall development. The first symptoms of clubroot disease appeared 14 days after...

Assimilating MODIS data-derived minimum input data set and water stress factors into CERES-Maize model improves regional corn yield predictions

Crop growth models and remote sensing are useful tools for predicting crop growth and yield, but each tool has inherent drawbacks when predicting crop growth and yield at a regional scale. To improve the accuracy and precision of regional corn yield predictions, a simple approach for assimilating Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) products into a crop growth...

Nocardia polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assay performed on bronchoalveolar lavage fluid after lung transplantation: A prospective pilot study

Background Transplant recipients are at risk of pulmonary nocardiosis, a life-threatening opportunistic infection caused by Nocardia species. Given the limitations of conventional diagnostic techniques (i.e., microscopy and culture), a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assay was developed to detect Nocardia spp. on clinical samples. While this test is increasingly being used...

Longitudinal effects of aging on plasma proteins levels in older adults – associations with kidney function and hemoglobin levels

Background A targeted proteomics chip has been shown to be useful to discover novel associations of proteins with cardiovascular disease. We investigated how these proteins change with aging, and whether this change is related to a decline in kidney function, or to a change in hemoglobin levels. Material and methods In the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala...

Primary HIV prevention in pregnant and lactating Ugandan women: A randomized trial

Background The ‘Primary HIV Prevention among Pregnant and Lactating Ugandan Women’ (PRIMAL) study aimed to assess the effectiveness of an enhanced HIV counseling intervention for preventing HIV acquisition among HIV-uninfected mothers during pregnancy and throughout the breastfeeding period. Methods We conducted an unblinded randomized control trial between 22 February 2013 and...

Digit ratio (2D:4D) and academic success as measured by achievement in the academic degree “Habilitation”

Introduction Prenatal androgen exposure has important organizing effects on brain development and therefore on future behavior. Previous research has shown, that the ratio between index finger (2D) and ring finger (4D) (2D:4D) could function as a marker of prenatal androgen effects, with a relatively shorter 2D indicating a higher prenatal androgen exposure. 2D:4D is associated...

HIV treatment outcomes following antiretroviral therapy initiation and monitoring: A workplace program in Papua, Indonesia

Background Papua Province, Indonesia is experiencing an on-going epidemic of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection, with an estimated 9-fold greater prevalence than the overall national rate. This study reviewed the treatment outcomes of an HIV-infected cohort on Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) and the predictors in terms of immunological recovery and virological response...

Evaluating trajectories of episodic memory in normal cognition and mild cognitive impairment: Results from ADNI

Background Memory assessment is a key factor for the diagnosis of cognitive impairment. However, memory performance over time may be quite heterogeneous within diagnostic groups. Method To identify latent trajectories in memory performance and their associated risk factors, we analyzed data from Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) participants who were classified...

Using OpenStreetMap point-of-interest data to model urban change—A feasibility study

User-generated content is a valuable resource for capturing all aspects of our environment and lives, and dedicated Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI) efforts such as OpenStreetMap (OSM) have revolutionized spatial data collection. While OSM data is widely used, considerably little attention has been paid to the quality of its Point-of-interest (POI) component. This work...

An alkaline active feruloyl-CoA synthetase from soil metagenome as a potential key enzyme for lignin valorization strategies

Ferulic acid (FA), a low-molecular weight aromatic compound derived from lignin, represents a high-value molecule, used for applications in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. FA can be further enzymatically converted in other commercially interesting molecules, such as vanillin and bioplastics. In several organisms, these transformations often start with a common step of...

Re-thinking the evolution of microblade technology in East Asia: Techno-functional understanding of the lithic assemblage from Shizitan 29 (Shanxi, China)

The lithic assemblage from Shizitan 29, a late Upper Paleolithic open-air site in Shanxi, China, provides evidence for the earliest, well-dated microblade production in East Asia, ca. 26/24 Ka cal BP. To pursue a behavioral rather than traditional typological understanding of this key adaptive technology, we apply a techno-functional approach that enables us to reconstruct the...

Differentiation between blood and iodine in a bovine brain—Initial experience with Spectral Photon-Counting Computed Tomography (SPCCT)

Objectives To evaluate the accuracy of Spectral Photon-Counting Computed Tomography (SPCCT) in the quantification of iodine concentrations and its potential for the differentiation between blood and iodine. Methods Tubes with blood and a concentration series of iodine were scanned with a preclinical SPCCT system (both in vitro and in an ex vivo bovine brain tissue sample). Iodine...

Evaluation of sites of velopharyngeal structure augmentation in dogs for improvement of velopharyngeal insufficiency

Background Velopharyngeal structure augmentation methods are used as alternatives to velopharyngeal plasty. Anatomic sites of implantation/injection vary widely due to a lack of standardized criteria. Here, we experimentally investigated optimal sites of velopharyngeal structure augmentation via saline injection in dogs as they naturally exhibit velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI...

Improving the proof of “Privacy-preserving attribute-keyword based data publish-subscribe service on cloud platforms”

Most recently, Kan Yang et al. proposed an attribute-keyword based encryption scheme for data publish-subscribe service(AKPS), which is highly useful for cloud storage scenario. Unfortunately, we discover that there is a flaw in the security proof of indistinguishability of the tag and trapdoor against chosen keyword attack under the Bilinear Diffie-Hellman (BDH) assumption. As...

Unraveling transformation of follicular lymphoma to diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

Follicular lymphoma (FL) is an indolent but largely incurable disease. Some patients suffer histological transformation to a more aggressive subtype with poorer prognosis. This study aimed to improve our understanding of the genetics underlying FL histological transformation, and to identify genetic drivers or promoters of the transformation by elucidating the differences between...

Assessing EHR use during hospital morning rounds: A multi-faceted study

Background The majority of U.S hospitals have implemented electronic health records (EHRs). While the benefits of EHRs have been widely touted, little is known about their effects on inpatient care, including how well they meet workflow needs and support care. Objective Assess the extent to which EHRs support care team workflow during hospital morning rounds. Design We applied a...