PLOS ONE

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/

List of Papers (Total 204,400)

Comparison of efficiency and specificity of CRISPR-associated (Cas) nucleases in plants: An expanded toolkit for precision genome engineering

Molecular tools adapted from bacterial CRISPR (Clustered Regulatory Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats) systems for adaptive immunity have become widely used for plant genome engineering, both to investigate gene functions and to engineer desirable traits. A number of different Cas (CRISPR-associated) nucleases are now used but, as most studies performed to date have...

Quality of life in climacteric women assisted by primary health care

This cross-sectional study evaluated the quality of life and associated factors of climacteric women in Brazil using a random and representative sample of women assisted by primary care professionals. We investigated the variables using the Menopause-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire, MENQOL, whose mean scores were compared using Mann–Whitney and Kruskal–Wallis tests...

The aetiology, prevalence and morbidity of outbreaks of photosensitisation in livestock: A review

Background Photosensitisation is a clinical condition occurring in both humans and animals that causes significant injury to affected individuals. In livestock, outbreaks of photosensitisation caused by ingestion of toxic plants are relatively common and can be associated with significant economic loss. Objectives The agents that are most commonly implicated in outbreaks of...

Waterpipe smoke and e-cigarette vapor differentially affect circadian molecular clock gene expression in mouse lungs

The use of emerging tobacco products, such as waterpipe or hookah and electronic cigarettes (e-cigs), has gained significant popularity and are promoted as safer alternatives to conventional cigarettes. Circadian systems are internal biological oscillations that are considered important regulators of immune functions in mammals. Tobacco induced inflammatory lung diseases...

Control of fibrinolytic drug injection via real-time ultrasonic monitoring of blood coagulation

In the present study, we investigated the capabilities of a novel ultrasonic approach for real-time control of fibrinolysis under flow conditions. Ultrasonic monitoring was performed in a specially designed experimental in vitro system. Fibrinolytic agents were automatically injected at ultrasonically determined stages of the blood clotting. The following clots dissolution in the...

Genetic dissection of agronomic and quality traits based on association mapping and genomic selection approaches in durum wheat grown in Southern Spain

Climatic conditions affect the growth, development and final crop production. As wheat is of paramount importance as a staple crop in the human diet, there is a growing need to study its abiotic stress adaptation through the performance of key breeding traits. New and complementary approaches, such as genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and genomic selection (GS), are used for...

Global burden of maternal and congenital syphilis and associated adverse birth outcomes—Estimates for 2016 and progress since 2012

Background In 2007 the World Health Organization (WHO) launched the global initiative to eliminate mother-to-child transmission of syphilis (congenital syphilis, or CS). To assess progress towards the goal of <50 CS cases per 100,000 live births, we generated regional and global estimates of maternal and congenital syphilis for 2016 and updated the 2012 estimates. Methods...

Multiple recurrences and risk of disease progression in patients with primary low-grade (TaG1) non–muscle-invasive bladder cancer and with low and intermediate EORTC-risk score

Aim To assess the prognostic value of multiple recurrences on the risk of progression in a large cohort of TaG1 bladder cancer of low and intermediate risk based on the EORTC score and to evaluate prognostic factors of multiple recurrences. Materials and methods We retrospectively analyzed a French cohort of 470 patients with primary TaG1 bladder cancer diagnosed between 1986 and...

Evaluation of the responsiveness of outcome measures after spine injection: A retrospective study

Discrepancies in patients’ responses to various outcome measures challenge clinicians’ evaluation of treatment outcomes. Therefore, we aimed to 1) evaluate the concordance of outcome measures after spine injection, 2) determine the patient variables that lead to discordant responses, and 3) suggest practical outcome measure for spine injections with good responsiveness. From...

Prenatal exposure to gestational diabetes mellitus increases developmental defects in the enamel of offspring

Background and objective Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with short- and long-term maternal and perinatal repercussions. Our objective was to evaluate the long-term consequences of intrauterine exposure to hyperglycemia on Developmental Defects of Enamel (DDE) in offspring. Results Overall, 50 children of women with GDM and 250 children of normoglycemic women...

Situational Judgment Tests as a method for measuring personality: Development and validity evidence for a test of Dependability

Situational Judgment Tests (SJTs) are criterion valid low fidelity measures that have gained much popularity as predictors of job performance. A broad variety of SJTs have been studied, but SJTs measuring personality are still rare. Personality traits such as Conscientiousness are valid predictors of many educational, work and life-related outcomes and SJTs are less prone to...

Stereotypes about surgeon warmth and competence: The role of surgeon gender

Past research indicates that patient perceptions of surgeon warmth and competence influence treatment expectancies and satisfaction with treatment outcomes. Stereotypes have a powerful impact on impression formation. The present research explores stereotypes about surgeon warmth and competence and investigates the extent to which surgeon gender influences perceptions of female...

Producing knowledge by admitting ignorance: Enhancing data quality through an “I don’t know” option in citizen science

The “noisy labeler problem” in crowdsourced data has attracted great attention in recent years, with important ramifications in citizen science, where non-experts must produce high-quality data. Particularly relevant to citizen science is dynamic task allocation, in which the level of agreement among labelers can be progressively updated through the information-theoretic notion...

Isolating pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells ex vivo: Implications for pulmonary arterial hypertension, and a caution on the use of commercial biomaterials

Transcriptomic analysis of pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells from experimental models offers insight into pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) pathobiology. However, culturing may alter the molecular profile of endothelial cells prior to analysis, limiting the translational relevance of results. Here we present a novel and validated method for isolating RNA from...

Evolution of international collaborative research efforts to develop non-Cochrane systematic reviews

This research-on-research study describes efforts to develop non-Cochrane systematic reviews (SRs) by analyzing demographical and time-course collaborations between international institutions using protocols registered in the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) or published in scientific journals. We have published an a priori protocol to develop...

Use of plumage and gular pouch color to evaluate condition of oil spill rehabilitated California brown pelicans (Pelecanus occidentalis californicus) post-release

Sublethal effects of oil spills may dampen seabird rehabilitation success due to lingering negative impacts of contamination and stress on reproduction and long-term survival. These effects can be difficult to measure while birds are in care as well as once birds are released. Expression of sexually selected traits that are sensitive to condition can provide information on...

Single-center retrospective study of the effectiveness and toxicity of the oral iron chelating drugs deferiprone and deferasirox

Background Iron overload, resulting from blood transfusions in patients with chronic anemias, has historically been controlled with regular deferoxamine, but its parenteral requirement encouraged studies of orally-active agents, including deferasirox and deferiprone. Deferasirox, licensed by the US Food and Drug Administration in 2005 based upon the results of randomized...

Association between migration and physical activity among medical students from a university located in Lima, Peru

Objective To evaluate the association between migration and physical activity among medical students from a university located in Lima, Peru. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among second-year medical students from a Peruvian university. Data on moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) and migration features were obtained through a self-report...

Shipping routes through core habitat of endangered sperm whales along the Hellenic Trench, Greece: Can we reduce collision risks?

The Mediterranean sperm whale population is listed as ‘Endangered”. The Hellenic Trench is the core habitat of the eastern Mediterranean sperm whale sub-population that numbers two to three hundred individuals. Major shipping routes running on or very close to the 1000 m depth contour along the Hellenic Trench are causing an unsustainable number of ship-strikes with sperm whales...

Tead1 is required for perinatal cardiomyocyte proliferation

Adult heart size is determined predominantly by the cardiomyocyte number and size. The cardiomyocyte number is determined primarily in the embryonic and perinatal period, as adult cardiomyocyte proliferation is restricted in comparison to that seen during the perinatal period. Recent evidence has implicated the mammalian Hippo kinase pathway as being critical in cardiomyocyte...

A systematic review of individual and community mitigation measures for prevention and control of chikungunya virus

Background Chikungunya is a mosquito-borne virus transmitted by mosquitoes from the Aedes genus. The virus, endemic to parts of Asia and Africa, has recently undergone an emergence in other parts of the world where it was previously not found including Indian Ocean Islands, Europe, the Western Pacific and the Americas. There is no vaccine against chikungunya virus, which means...

Emotional response in schizophrenia to the “36 questions that lead to love”: Predicted and experienced emotions regarding a live social interaction

Evidence suggests that individuals with schizophrenia (SZ) report anticipatory pleasure deficits compared to controls and that these deficits are linked to decreased motivation to engage socially. However, these deficits have been identified via self-report measures of hypothetical pleasant stimuli, leaving it unclear whether they exist in reference to actual social situations...

Evaporation of droplet in mid-air: Pure and binary droplets in single-axis acoustic levitator

Acoustic levitation method (ALM) is a container-less processing method with applications in various fields, including material processing, biology, and analytical chemistry. Because it is a container-less processing technique, ALM could prevent nucleation and contamination of materials being processed via contact with a container wall. It is well-known that evaporation of a...

Automatic diagnostics of tuberculosis using convolutional neural networks analysis of MODS digital images

Tuberculosis is an infectious disease that causes ill health and death in millions of people each year worldwide. Timely diagnosis and treatment is key to full patient recovery. The Microscopic Observed Drug Susceptibility (MODS) is a test to diagnose TB infection and drug susceptibility directly from a sputum sample in 7–10 days with a low cost and high sensitivity and...

Drug sensitivity prediction with high-dimensional mixture regression

This paper proposes a mixture regression model-based method for drug sensitivity prediction. The proposed method explicitly addresses two fundamental issues in drug sensitivity prediction, namely, population heterogeneity and feature selection pertaining to each of the subpopulations. The mixture regression model is estimated using the imputation-conditional consistency algorithm...