PLOS ONE

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/

List of Papers (Total 202,022)

Regulation of Granulocyte and Macrophage Populations of Murine Bone Marrow Cells by G-CSF and CD137 Protein

Background Granulocytes and monocytes/macrophages differentiate from common myeloid progenitor cells. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and CD137 (4-1BB, TNFRSF9) are growth and differentiation factors that induce granulocyte and macrophage survival and differentiation, respectively. This study describes the influence of G-CSF and recombinant CD137-Fc protein on...

Factors Associated with Self and Informant Ratings of the Quality of Life of People with Dementia Living in Care Facilities: A Cross Sectional Study

Background There is no consensus regarding the optimal approach to assessment of the quality of life of people with dementia. We undertook the present study to describe and determine the factors associated with ratings of the quality of life of a cohort of people with dementia living in a residential care facility. Methodology/Principal Findings 351 people with dementia living in...

Methamphetamine-Induced Dopamine-Independent Alterations in Striatal Gene Expression in the 6-Hydroxydopamine Hemiparkinsonian Rats

Unilateral injections of 6-hydroxydopamine into the medial forebrain bundle are used extensively as a model of Parkinson's disease. The present experiments sought to identify genes that were affected in the dopamine (DA)–denervated striatum after 6-hydroxydopamine-induced destruction of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway in the rat. We also examined whether a single injection...

Soft Substrates Promote Homogeneous Self-Renewal of Embryonic Stem Cells via Downregulating Cell-Matrix Tractions

Maintaining undifferentiated mouse embryonic stem cell (mESC) culture has been a major challenge as mESCs cultured in Leukemia Inhibitory Factor (LIF) conditions exhibit spontaneous differentiation, fluctuating expression of pluripotency genes, and genes of specialized cells. Here we show that, in sharp contrast to the mESCs seeded on the conventional rigid substrates, the mESCs...

Galanin Receptor 1 Deletion Exacerbates Hippocampal Neuronal Loss after Systemic Kainate Administration in Mice

Background Galanin is a neuropeptide with a wide distribution in the central and peripheral nervous systems and whose physiological effects are mediated through three G protein-coupled receptor subtypes, GalR1, GalR2, and GalR3. Several lines of evidence indicate that galanin, as well as activation of the GalR1 receptor, is a potent and effective modulator of neuronal...

Nuclear Shield: A Multi-Enzyme Task-Force for Nucleus Protection

Background In eukaryotic cells the nuclear envelope isolates and protects DNA from molecules that could damage its structure or interfere with its processing. Moreover, selected protection enzymes and vitamins act as efficient guardians against toxic compounds both in the nucleoplasm and in the cytosol. The observation that a cytosolic detoxifying and antioxidant enzyme i.e...

Natural Proteasome Inhibitor Celastrol Suppresses Androgen-Independent Prostate Cancer Progression by Modulating Apoptotic Proteins and NF-kappaB

Background Celastrol is a natural proteasome inhibitor that exhibits promising anti-tumor effects in human malignancies, especially the androgen-independent prostate cancer (AIPC) with constitutive NF-κB activation. Celastrol induces apoptosis by means of proteasome inhibition and suppresses prostate tumor growth. However, the detailed mechanism of action remains elusive. In the...

DNA Aptamers as Molecular Probes for Colorectal Cancer Study

Background Understanding the molecular features of specific tumors can increase our knowledge about the mechanism(s) underlying disease development and progression. This is particularly significant for colorectal cancer, which is a heterogeneous complex of diseases developed in a sequential manner through a multistep carcinogenic process. As such, it is likely that tumors with...

Phenocopy – A Strategy to Qualify Chemical Compounds during Hit-to-Lead and/or Lead Optimization

A phenocopy is defined as an environmentally induced phenotype of one individual which is identical to the genotype-determined phenotype of another individual. The phenocopy phenomenon has been translated to the drug discovery process as phenotypes produced by the treatment of biological systems with new chemical entities (NCE) may resemble environmentally induced phenotypic...

Dissociated Mechanisms of Extracting Perceptual Information into Visual Working Memory

Background The processing mechanisms of visual working memory (VWM) have been extensively explored in the recent decade. However, how the perceptual information is extracted into VWM remains largely unclear. The current study investigated this issue by testing whether the perceptual information was extracted into VWM via an integrated-object manner so that all the irrelevant...

Fluorescent Protein-Based Methods for On-Plate Screening of Gene Insertion

Background Unlike the commonly used method of blue-white screening for gene insertion, a fluorescent protein-based screening method offers a gain-of-function screening process without using any co-factors and a gene fusion product with a fluorescent protein reporter that is further useful in cell imaging studies. However, complications related to protein-folding efficiencies of...

Molecular Evolution and Functional Divergence of the Cytochrome P450 3 (CYP3) Family in Actinopterygii (Ray-Finned Fish)

Background The cytochrome P450 (CYP) superfamily is a multifunctional hemethiolate enzyme that is widely distributed from Bacteria to Eukarya. The CYP3 family contains mainly the four subfamilies CYP3A, CYP3B, CYP3C and CYP3D in vertebrates; however, only the Actinopterygii (ray-finned fish) have all four subfamilies and detailed understanding of the evolutionary relationship of...

TIA-1 Cytotoxic Granule-Associated RNA Binding Protein Improves the Prognostic Performance of CD8 in Mismatch Repair-Proficient Colorectal Cancer

Background Evidence suggests a confounding effect of mismatch repair (MMR) status on immune response in colorectal cancer. The identification of innate and adaptive immune cells, that can complement the established prognostic effect of CD8 in MMR-proficient colorectal cancers patients, representing 85% of all cases, has not been performed. Methodology/Principal Findings...

Cancer Risk in Mothers of Men Operated for Undescended Testis

Background Undescended testis, or cryptorchidism, occurs in 2–5% of boys born at term, and by 12 months of age about 1% of all boys have manifest cryptorchidism. Several hormonal substances control this process and disruption of the foetal sex-hormones balance is a potential cause of undescended testis, however, to a great extent the aetiology of cryptorchidism is unclear...

FReD: The Floral Reflectance Database — A Web Portal for Analyses of Flower Colour

Background Flower colour is of great importance in various fields relating to floral biology and pollinator behaviour. However, subjective human judgements of flower colour may be inaccurate and are irrelevant to the ecology and vision of the flower's pollinators. For precise, detailed information about the colours of flowers, a full reflectance spectrum for the flower of...

Efficient Utilization of Rare Variants for Detection of Disease-Related Genomic Regions

When testing association between rare variants and diseases, an efficient analytical approach involves considering a set of variants in a genomic region as the unit of analysis. One factor complicating this approach is that the vast majority of rare variants in practical applications are believed to represent background neutral variation. As a result, analyzing a single set with...

Sublethal Doses of Anthrax Lethal Toxin on the Suppression of Macrophage Phagocytosis

Background Lethal toxin (LT), the major virulence factor produced by Bacillus anthracis, has been shown to suppress the immune system, which is beneficial to the establishment of B. anthracis infections. It has been suggested that the suppression of MEK/MAPK signaling pathways of leukocytes contributes to LT-mediated immunosuppressive effects. However, the involvement of MAPK...

Environmental Profile of a Community's Health (EPOCH): An Instrument to Measure Environmental Determinants of Cardiovascular Health in Five Countries

Background The environment in which people live is known to be important in influencing diet, physical activity, smoking, psychosocial and other risk factors for cardiovascular (CV) disease. However no instrument exists that evaluates communities for these multiple environmental factors and is suitable for use across different communities, regions and countries. This report...

Extensive and Intimate Association of the Cytoskeleton with Forming Silica in Diatoms: Control over Patterning on the Meso- and Micro-Scale

Background The diatom cell wall, called the frustule, is predominantly made out of silica, in many cases with highly ordered nano- and micro-scale features. Frustules are built intracellularly inside a special compartment, the silica deposition vesicle, or SDV. Molecules such as proteins (silaffins and silacidins) and long chain polyamines have been isolated from the silica and...

Identification of a Common Lupus Disease-Associated microRNA Expression Pattern in Three Different Murine Models of Lupus

Background Recent reports have shown that microRNAs (miRNAs) regulate vital immunological processes and have emerged as key regulators of immune system development and function. Therefore, it is important to determine miRNA dysregulation and its pathogenic contribution in autoimmune diseases, an aspect not adequately addressed thus far. Methodology/Principal Findings In this...

Genome-Wide Screen for Mycobacterium tuberculosis Genes That Regulate Host Immunity

In spite of its highly immunogenic properties, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) establishes persistent infection in otherwise healthy individuals, making it one of the most widespread and deadly human pathogens. Mtb's prolonged survival may reflect production of microbial factors that prevent even more vigorous immunity (quantitative effect) or that divert the immune response to...

Utility of In Vivo Transcription Profiling for Identifying Pseudomonas aeruginosa Genes Needed for Gastrointestinal Colonization and Dissemination

Microarray analysis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa mRNA transcripts expressed in vivo during animal infection has not been previously used to investigate potential virulence factors needed in this setting. We compared mRNA expression in bacterial cells recovered from the gastrointestinal (GI) tracts of P. aeruginosa-colonized mice to that of P. aeruginosa in the drinking water used to...

Cellular Reactive Oxygen Species Inhibit MPYS Induction of IFNβ

Many inflammatory diseases, as well as infections, are accompanied by elevation in cellular levels of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS). Here we report that MPYS, a.k.a. STING, which was recently shown to mediate activation of IFNβ expression during infection, is a ROS sensor. ROS induce intermolecular disulfide bonds formation in MPYS homodimer and inhibit MPYS IFNβ stimulatory...

The PluriNetWork: An Electronic Representation of the Network Underlying Pluripotency in Mouse, and Its Applications

Background Analysis of the mechanisms underlying pluripotency and reprogramming would benefit substantially from easy access to an electronic network of genes, proteins and mechanisms. Moreover, interpreting gene expression data needs to move beyond just the identification of the up-/downregulation of key genes and of overrepresented processes and pathways, towards clarifying the...

Kita Driven Expression of Oncogenic HRAS Leads to Early Onset and Highly Penetrant Melanoma in Zebrafish

Background Melanoma is the most aggressive and lethal form of skin cancer. Because of the increasing incidence and high lethality of melanoma, animal models for continuously observing melanoma formation and progression as well as for testing pharmacological agents are needed. Methodology and Principal Findings Using the combinatorial Gal4 –UAS system, we have developed a...